What's all the "Buzz" about?

What you need to do-
Please read the parent letter and the rules and regulations on the side tab bar. If you have a child in 4th or 5th grade, you need to print off each of the 14 different language sections and staple together or they can study them online. Have your child study these words for the next couple of months. The top 2 winners from our elementary will go on to the Iron County District Spelling Bee held at the District Office Building on March 13th. There will be some big prizes this year! Winner gets an ipad mini. If your child does not have access to the internet or paper to print, there are a few copies in the office that you could pick up.

If you have a child in 1st-3rd grade, you need to print off spelling list A & B and have your child study them for the next couple of months. If you cannot view list A, you just click on the button "older posts" at the bottom of the page and it will redirect to Spelling List A.

Wednesday, October 30, 2013

4th-5th Grade Spelling List (10- Japanese)

ninja- [nin-juh]-noun- a member of a feudal Japanese society of mercenary agents, highly trained in martial arts and stealth (ninjutsu) who were hired for covert purposes ranging from espionage to sabotage and assassination.   He keeps a ninja baton and a can of pepper spray by his bed.
sushi- [soo-shee]-noun-Japanese Cookery- cold boiled rice moistened with rice vinegar, usually shaped into bite-size pieces and topped with raw seafood or formed into a long seaweed-wrapped roll, often around strips of vegetable or raw fish, and sliced into bite-size pieces.   If you're a sushi lover, order a combo to sample a few different sushi selections.
tofu- [toh-foo]-noun- a soft, bland, white cheese-like food, high in protein content, made from curdled soybean milk: used originally in Oriental cookery but now in a wide variety of soups and other dishes.
Gamely swallowing the abalone, he then deftly places a cube of braised tofu into his mouth. 
shogun- [shoh-guh n, -guh n]-noun-Japanese Cookery- the title applied to the chief military commanders from about the 8th century a.d. to the end of the 12th century, then applied to the hereditary officials who governed Japan, with the emperor as nominal ruler, until 1868, when the shogunate was terminated and the ruling power was returned to the emperor. The shogun controlled foreign policy, the military and feudal patronage.
honcho- [hon-choh]-noun- a leader, especially an assertive leader; chief.   Let's say your old boss is gone and the new head honcho is not aware of all your glorious achievements.
karate- [kuh-rah-tee]- a method developed in Japan of defending oneself without the use of weapons by striking sensitive areas on an attacker's body with the hands, elbows, knees, or feet. But you understand that fingers are not used in boxing or karate. 
samurai- [sam-oo-rahy]-noun- a member of the hereditary warrior class in feudal Japan.   They weren't really samurai but a ragtag group who set up a militia. 
teriyaki- [ter-uh-yah-kee]-noun- a dish of grilled slices of beef, chicken, or fish that have been marinated in soy sauce seasoned with sake, ginger, and sugar.  Sushi and sashimi choices are available, paired with tempura and teriyaki dishes. 
sashimi- [sah-shee-mee]-noun-Japanese Cookery- raw fish cut into very thin slices.  Our yellowtail sashimi literally melts away into a mouthful of flavor. 
tsunami- [tsoo-nah-mee]-noun- an unusually large sea wave produced by a seaquake or undersea volcanic eruption. The movie does not convey the tsunami which followed directly after the explosion. 
haiku- [hahy-koo]- a major form of Japanese verse, written in 17 syllables divided into 3 lines of 5, 7, and 5 syllables, and employing highly evocative allusions and comparisons, often on the subject of nature or one of the seasons.  Not only has the studio whittled these movies down to haiku, but it's also a haiku with only two lines.
futon- [foo-ton, fyoo-]-noun- a thin mattress, usually filled with layers of cotton batting and encased in cotton fabric, placed on a floor for sleeping, especially in traditional Japanese interiors, and folded and stored during the day.  The seemingly normal futon in the corner is actually a multimedia couch bed.
mikado- [mi-kah-doh]-noun- ( sometimes initial capital letter ) a title of the emperor of Japan.  Mikado is a former title of the emperor of Japan used chiefly in the English language. 
hibachi- [hi-bah-chee]-noun- a small Japanese-style charcoal brazier covered with a grill, usually used for outdoor cooking.   In addition to the restaurant's hibachi and teriyaki dinners, there is a large sushi
menu for diners. 

origami- [awr-i-gah-mee]-noun- the traditional Japanese art or technique of folding paper into a variety of decorative or representational forms, as of animals or flowers.  Paper-folding can produce more than airplanes, as the ancient art of origami has shown. 
geisha- [gey-shuh, gee-]-noun- a Japanese woman trained as a professional singer, dancer, and companion for men.  Geisha are women in Japan who entertain in traditional ways.
wasabi- [wah-suh-bee]-noun- the pungent, greenish root of this plant, which can be grated and used as a condiment.  Wasabi loses much of its flavor and pungency within minutes after it's grated, and so its preparation is timely. 
ramen- [rah-muhn]-noun-Japanese Cookery- a bowl of clear soup containing noodles, vegetables, and often bits of meat. The hotel features four on-site restaurants, including a ramen shop, and hosts a karaoke lounge.
kudzu- [koo d-zoo]-noun- a fast-growing Chinese and Japanese climbing vine, Pueraria lobata, of the legume family, now widespread in the southern U.S., having tuberous, starchy roots and stems: used for fiber, as food and forage, and to prevent soil erosion.   Kudzu is a highly aggressive, invasive plant that is extremely difficult to control once established. 
banzai- [bahn-zahy, bahn-]-adj.- leading to likely or inevitable death; suicidal.  Then the enemy launched two banzai attacks, each announced with a bugle call.  
tycoon- [tahy-koon]-noun- a businessperson of great wealth and power; magnate.  Now it is clear it was a manoeuvre to restyle his tycoon image. 
sumo- [soo-moh]-noun- a form of wrestling in Japan in which a contestant wins by forcing his opponent out of the ring or by causing him to touch the ground with any part of his body other than the soles of his feet, contestants usually being men of great height and weight.  There was a ceremony going on for the new champion sumo wrestler. 
koan- [koh-ahn]-noun- a nonsensical or paradoxical question to a student for which an answer is demanded, the stress of meditation on the question often being illuminating.  The lack of variety in the landscape here is our koan. 
satori- [suh-tawr-ee, -tohr-ee]-noun-Zen- sudden enlightenment.   Satori is a spiritual awakening sought in Zen Buddhism, often coming suddenly. 
tatami- [tuh-tah-mee]-noun- (in Japanese houses) any of a number of thick, woven straw mats of uniform dimensions, about three feet by six feet (91 cm by 183 cm), the placing of which determines the dimensions of an interior.  When walking on tatami it is customary to shuffle, to avoid causing disturbance. 
kami-[kah-my]-noun- a divine being or spiritual force in Shinto.  Kami are the spirits or phenomena that are worshipped in the religion of Shinto. 
sukiyaki- [soo-kee-yah-kee, soo k-ee-, skee-yah-kee]-noun- a Japanese dish made with beef, chicken, or pork and usually containing soy sauce, bean curd, and greens, often cooked over direct heat at the table.  Sukiyaki is a popular one-pot meal which is usually cooked at the table as you eat.
jinrikisha- [jin-rik-shaw, -shah]-noun- a small, two-wheeled, cart-like passenger vehicle with a fold-down top, pulled by one person, formerly used widely in Japan and China.  The jinrikisha, or rickshaw is a chair cart used in many Asiatic countries.
Meiji- [mey-jee]-noun-Japanese History- the designation of the period of the reign of Emperor Mutsuhito from 1868 to 1912.  This changed under Emperor Meiji, whose supporters overthrew the ruling Shogun general. 
Romaji- [roh-muh-jee]-noun- a system of writing Japanese using the letters of the Latin alphabet. Romaji literally means ''roman characters'' and is the way that Japanese words are rendered in English. odori-[o-door-ee]-noun- any lively Japanese folk or theater dance characterized by rapid footwork —distinguished from mai.  Odori grew out of Kabuki drama and is more oriented toward male sentiments. 
miso- [mee-soh; Japanese mee-saw]-noun-Japanese Cookery- a fermented seasoning paste of soybeans, often with rice or barley added, used to flavor soups and sauces.  Later add some salt and seasoning, kelp powder, and a few tablespoons of miso to each soup. 
Kabuki- [kah-boo-kee, kuh-, kah-boo-kee]-noun- popular drama of Japan, developed chiefly in the 17th century, characterized by elaborate costuming, rhythmic dialogue, stylized acting, music, and dancing, and the performance of both male and female roles by male actors. There, students and a research team of gifted and innovative teachers could explore everything from the art of clowning to kabuki. 
geta- [get-uh; Japanese ge-tah]-noun- a traditional Japanese wooden clog that is worn outdoors, with a thong that passes between the first two toes and with two transverse supports on the bottom of the sole.
Geta are a form of traditional Japanese footwear that resembles both clogs and flip-flops. 
sayonara- [sahy-uh-nahr-uh; Japanese sah-yaw-nah-rah]-interjection- farewell; good-bye.  So bid farewell to fatigue, sayonara to smoking and aweigh to unwanted weight gain. 

Challenge Words 
karaoke- [kar-ee-oh-kee]-noun- an act of singing along to a music video, especially one from which the original vocals have been electronically eliminated.   Fear of public singing in karaoke bars may soon be a thing of the past with a new device that can instantly create perfect pitch. 
nisei- [nee-sey, nee-sey]-noun- a person of Japanese descent, born and educated in the U.S. or Canada. The term "nisei" comes from a Japanese word, and refers to children born to Japanese parents in a country other than Japan.
sansei- [sahn-sey, sahn-sey]-noun- a grandchild of Japanese immigrants to the U.S. or Canada.
Sansei is a Japanese term meaning third generation. 
issei- [ees-sey]-noun- a Japanese who immigrated to the U.S. or Canada after 1907 and was not eligible until 1952 for citizenship.  An issei is defined as a Japanese immigrant especially to the United States.
kibei- [kee-bey]-noun- a person of Japanese descent, born in the U.S. but educated in Japan. The kibei left Missouri to attend school in Okinawa.
kakemono- [kah-kuh-moh-noh; Japanese kah-ke-maw-naw]-noun- a vertical hanging scroll containing either text or a painting, intended to be viewed on a wall and rolled when not in use. The kakemono is usually on rice paper and mounted on silk brocade with a rod, often made of ceramic or wood, on the bottom.
ukiyo-e- [yoo-kee-oh-ey; Japanese oo-kee-yaw-e]-noun- a genre style of painting and printmaking developed in Japan from the 17th to the 19th centuries and marked by the depiction of the leisure activities of ordinary people.  Ukiyo-e mainly features motifs of landscapes, tales from history, the theatre and pleasure quarters.
yakitori- [yah-ki-tawr-ee, -tohr-ee]-noun-Japanese Cookery- a dish of small pieces of boneless chicken, usually marinated, skewered, and grilled. Order from the traditional yakitori menu for dinner or go with the beef short ribs and calamari.

4th-5th Grade Spelling List (9- New World)

condor- [kon-der, -dawr]- either of two large, New World vultures of the family Cathartidae, Gymnogyps californianus (California condor) or Vultur gryphus (Andean condor) the largest flying birds in the Western Hemisphere: the California condor is almost extinct; the Andean condor is greatly reduced in number and rare in many areas.  Biologists monitor their behavior on and off the refuge, and observe condor nesting sites on and adjacent to the refuge. 
choreograph- [kawr-ee-uh-graf, -grahf, kohr-]-verb- to provide the choreography for: to choreograph a musical comedy.   People can design and choreograph their own routines. 
curvaceous- [kur-vey-shuh s]-adj- (of a woman) having a well-shaped figure with voluptuous curves. Their bodies were curvaceous and softly inflated, with hardly a muscle in sight. 
daiquiri- [dahy-kuh-ree, dak-uh-]-noun- a cocktail of rum, lemon or lime juice, and sugar, often with the addition of fruit and ice and mixed in an electric blender. Yes, the city allows drive-through daiquiri service. 
delimiter- [dih-lim-i-ter]-noun- a blank space, comma, or other character or symbol that indicates the beginning or end of a character string, word, or data item.  In a standard full-line comment, the comment delimiter itself must always appear in column zero.
Massachusetts- [mas-uh-choo-sits]-noun- a state in the NE United States, on the Atlantic coast. 8257 sq. mi. (21,385 sq. km). Capital: Boston. Abbreviation: MA (for use with zip code), Mass. Massachusetts borders Rhode Island and Connecticut to the south, New York to the west, and Vermont and New Hampshire to the north. 
mastectomy- [ma-stek-tuh-mee]-noun- the operation of removing all or part of the breast or mamma. The number of deaths has decreased over the years but this early mastectomy is probably the cure for cancer.
iguana- [ih-gwah-nuh]-noun- a large, arboreal lizard, Iguana iguana, native to Central and South America, having stout legs and a crest of spines from neck to tail.  The iguana, which is not a true lizard, are vegetarians and are often found in trees.
hurricane- [hur-i-keyn, huhr- or, esp. British, -kuh n]-noun- a violent, tropical, cyclonic storm of the western North Atlantic, having wind speeds of or in excess of 72 miles per hour (32 m/sec).  After a slow start, the 2009 hurricane season is kicking off in a big way.
kahuna- [kuh-hoo-nuh]- (in Hawaii) a native medicine man or priest.  Every important skill was under the direction of kahuna. 
hogan- [hoh-gawn, -guh n]-noun- a Navajo Indian dwelling constructed of earth and branches and covered with mud or sod. A hogan is the traditional, sacred, home for the Navajo Indians. 
jerky- [jur-kee]-adj.- characterized by jerks or sudden starts; spasmodic.   Quicker and the scene looks jerky, slower and the scene gets boring.
muskrat- [muhsk-rat]-noun- a large, aquatic, North American rodent, Ondatra zibethica, having a musky odor.  The muskrat's eyes, nose and breathing system help it adapt to life underwater. 
hominy- [hom-uh-nee]-noun- whole or ground hulled corn from which the bran and germ have been removed by bleaching the whole kernels in a lye bath (lye hominy) or by crushing and sifting (pearl hominy).   To make hominy, the dried corn was soaked in a mixture of water and ashes for two days.
wigwam- [wig-wom, -wawm]-noun- an American Indian dwelling, usually of rounded or oval shape, formed of poles overlaid with bark, mats, or skins.  A wigwam can be a dome or rectangular shaped house. 
pampas- [pam-puh z; attributively pam-puh s]-noun- the vast grassy plains of southern South America, especially in Argentina.  The coastal plain lacks the stark grace of the desert or the umber panache of the pampas. 
caribou- [kar-uh-boo]-noun- any of several large, North American deer of the genus Rangifer, related to the reindeer of the Old World.   A caribou is a ruminant mammal that belongs to the deer family and is found in North America. 
toboggan- [tuh-bog-uh n]-noun- a long, narrow, flat-bottomed sled made of a thin board curved upward and backward at the front, often with low handrails on the sides, used especially in the sport of coasting over snow or ice.    It has been a park used year around with the sled and toboggan hill during the winter season. 
persimmon- [per-sim-uh n]-noun- any of several trees of the genus Diospyros, especially D. virginiana, of North America, bearing astringent, plumlike fruit that is sweet and edible when ripe.  Tea can also be made from fresh or dried persimmon leaves.
quinine- [kwahy-nahyn, kwin-ahyn]-noun- a white, bitter, slightly water-soluble alkaloid, C 2 0 H 2 4 N 2 O 2 , having needlelike crystals, obtained from cinchona bark: used in medicine chiefly in the treatment of resistant forms of malaria.  Most of the party had malaria, and could be kept going only by large doses of quinine. 
powwow- [pou-wou]-noun- (among North American Indians) a ceremony, especially one accompanied by magic, feasting, and dancing, performed for the cure of disease, success in a hunt, etc.  For all of the dancers, it would be their first powwow. 
bayou- [bahy-oo, bahy-oh]-noun- a marshy arm, inlet, or outlet of a lake, river, etc., usually sluggish or stagnant.  In this quiet fishing village nestled in bayou country, the anger for injustice is epidemic. 
coyote- [kahy-oh-tee, kahy-oht]-noun- Also called prairie wolf; a buffy-gray, wolflike canid, Canis latrans, of North America, distinguished from the wolf by its relatively small size and its slender build, large ears, and narrow muzzle.  On the edges of a sheep farm, a coyote lurks, licking his chops. 
tamale- [tuh-mah-lee]-noun- a Mexican dish made of minced and seasoned meat packed in cornmeal dough, wrapped in corn husks, and steamed.  A tamale is a Mexican dish that has pork or beef roast shredded on the inside of the cooked dough made out of corn meal. 
poi- [poi, poh-ee]-noun- a Hawaiian dish made of the root of the taro baked, pounded, moistened, and fermented.  The taro is harvested and cooked in an underground oven before it can be made into Poi. 
cashew- [kash-oo, kuh-shoo]-noun- a tree, Anacardium occidentale, native to tropical America, having milky juice, simple, leathery leaves, and yellowish-pink flowers in open clusters.   Dinner entrees range from almond and cashew chicken to wok-charred beef.
luau- [loo-ou, loo-ou]-noun- a feast of Hawaiian food, usually held outdoors and usually accompanied by Hawaiian entertainment.  The wedding party celebrated with a private reception and luau.
totem- [toh-tuh m]-noun- a natural object or an animate being, as an animal or bird, assumed as the emblem of a clan, family, or group.   These are sensible ideas, but radical in a country where energy is still a nationalist totem. 
mahimahi- [mah-hee-mah-hee]-noun- the dolphinfish, especially when used as a food fish.  Grilled filet of mahimahi is another one of our favorites, as is the grilled filet of hake. 
hickory- [hik-uh-ree, hik-ree]-noun- any of several North American trees belonging to the genus Carya, of the walnut family, certain species of which bear edible nuts or yield a valuable wood.   In baseball's early days, hickory and oak were often used, but these are too heavy now. 
cacao- [kuh-kah-oh, -key-oh]-noun- a small tropical American evergreen tree, Theobroma cacao, cultivated for its seeds, the source of cocoa, chocolate, etc.  First there was the native cacao tree, from whose fruit chocolate is made. 
Kona- [koh-nuh]-noun- resort area, Hawaii county, on the west-central coast of Hawaii island, Hawaii, U.S. The western coast of the island of Hawaii is known as Kona, and Kailua is its largest town, hence the name Kailua-Kona for the entire region.   Kona is the home of the famous Ironman Triathalon. 
malihini- [mah-lee-hee-nee]-noun- a newcomer to Hawaii. The word malihini means newcomer which
is still utilized today 

wikiwiki-[wee-kee-wee-kee]-adj.- quickly, fast. We must get to the meeting wikiwiki. 
tuckahoe- [tuhk-uh-hoh]-noun- Also called Indian bread- the edible, underground sclerotium of the fungus Poria cocos, found on the roots of trees in the southern United States.  The word tuckahoe first appears on a map drawn by Captain John Smith in 1612. 
pecan- [pi-kahn, -kan, pee-kan]-noun- a tall hickory tree, Carya illinoinensis, of the southern U.S. and Mexico, cultivated for its oval, smooth-shelled, edible nuts: The pecan tree is the state tree of Texas. 
chipotle- [chi-poht-ley]-noun- a pungent red pepper, often pickled and eaten as an appetizer or added to meat stews, sauces, etc. Place all chipotle ingredients in food processor and chop.
skunk- [skuhngk]-noun- a small North American mammal, Mephitis mephitis, of the weasel family, having a black coat with a white, V-shaped stripe on the back, and ejecting a fetid odor when alarmed or attacked. Skunks usually nest in burrows constructed by other animals, but they also live in hollow logs or even abandoned buildings. 
woodchuck- [woo d-chuhk]-noun- a stocky North American burrowing rodent, Marmota monax, that hibernates in the winter.   Moles and a woodchuck wreak havoc with the blossoms in the garden.
chocolate- [chaw-kuh-lit, chok-uh-, chawk-lit, chok-]-noun- a preparation of the seeds of cacao, roasted, husked, and ground, often sweetened and flavored, as with vanilla.   Satisfying your craving for chocolate is easy, no matter where you are in the world.
muumuu- [moo-moo]-noun- a long, loose-hanging dress, usually brightly colored or patterned, worn especially by Hawaiian women.   Muumuu's are usually worn by older women and housewives to indicate to the public that they are not available to any other man. 
puma- [pyoo-muh, poo-]-noun- cougar, Also called- mountain lion a large American feline mammal, Felis concolor, that resembles a lion, having a plain greyish-brown coat and long tail. Staring down a puma can let the animal know you're aware it's looking, though distance can reduce its effectiveness. 
tomato- [tuh-mey-toh, -mah-]-noun- ny of several plants belonging to the genus Lycopersicon, of the nightshade family, native to Mexico and Central and South America, especially the widely cultivated species L. lycopersicum, bearing a mildly acid, pulpy, usually red fruit eaten raw or cooked as a vegetable.  Two mutations turned a tiny, wild fruit into the modern large, luscious tomato. 
maraca- [muh-rah-kuh, -rak-uh]-noun- a gourd or a gourd-shaped rattle filled with seeds or pebbles and used, often in a pair, as a rhythm instrument.  Plena ensembles sometimes added a conga drum and a single maraca as well as a trumpet, clarinet or accordion. 
petunia- [pit-oo-nyuh, -nee-uh, -tyoo-]-noun- any garden plant belonging to the genus Petunia, of the nightshade family, native to tropical America, having funnel-shaped flowers of various colors.   In the packing carton were three small begonias plus some petunia seedlings. 
jaguar- [jag-wahr, -yoo-ahr]-noun- a large spotted feline, Panthera onca, of tropical America, having a tawny coat with black rosettes: now greatly reduced in number and endangered in some areas.  The next day the rancher finds the remains and the telltale tracks of a jaguar. 
buccaneer- [buhk-uh-neer]-noun- any of the piratical adventurers who raided Spanish colonies and ships along the American coast in the second half of the 17th century.  The term buccaneer is now used generally as a synonym for pirate. 
llama- [lah-muh]-noun- a woolly-haired South American ruminant of the genus Lama, believed to be a domesticated variety of the guanaco: often used as a beast of burden.  The area offers a unique guided llama trekking tour on the hiking trails in the mountains. 
succotash- [suhk-uh-tash]-noun- a cooked dish of kernels of corn mixed with shell beans, especially lima beans, and, often, with green and sweet red peppers.   Beans and corn were often boiled together to make succotash.   
caucus- [kaw-kuh s]-noun-U.S. Politics- a meeting of party leaders to select candidates, elect convention delegates, etc.   As little as a week before the caucus the polls were still showing him in fourth or fifth place. 
wampum- [wom-puhm, wawm-]-noun- literally 'means white' shell; cylindrical beads made from shells, pierced and strung, used by North American Indians as a medium of exchange, for ornaments, and for ceremonial and sometimes spiritual purposes, especially such beads when white but also including the more valuable black or dark-purple varieties. Wampum are shell beads that are of cultural significance to the Native Americans of the Northeast. 
mole- [moh-ley]-noun- a spicy sauce flavored with chocolate, usually served with turkey or chicken. They served their delicious mole sauce with the roasted turkey. 
toucan- [too-kan, -kahn, too-kahn]-noun- any of several usually brightly colored, fruit-eating birds of the family Ramphastidae, of tropical America, having a very large bill.   In a world of birds that includes the flamingo, the toucan and the bald eagle, it can't be much fun to be a pigeon.
Challenge Words
opossum- [uh-pos-uh m, pos-uh m]-noun- a prehensile-tailed marsupial, Didelphis virginiana, of the eastern U.S., the female having an abdominal pouch in which its young are carried: noted for the habit of feigning death when in danger.  Instead, the opossum uses its tail as a brace and a fifth limb when climbing. 
terrapin- [ter-uh-pin]- any of several edible North American turtles of the family Emydidae, inhabiting fresh or brackish waters, especially the diamondback terrapin: some are threatened or endangered. Frogs and terrapin belong to a lower order of animals than fish or reptiles.
ocelot- [os-uh-lot, oh-suh-]-noun- a spotted leopardlike cat, Felis pardalis, ranging from Texas through South America: now greatly reduced in number and endangered in the U.S.  The rain forest also house several kinds of large cats including jaguar, ocelot and pumas. 
hoomalimali-[ho-uh-mah-lee-mah-lee]-noun- something designed primarily to attract favorable attention, but usually not serving the purpose for which it was made.   I thought the soap in the hotel suite was a mere hoomalimali.
coati- [koh-ah-tee]-noun- any tropical American carnivore of the genus Nasua, related to the raccoon, having an elongated body, long, ringed tail, and a slender, flexible snout.  Kermit hunted industriously and brought in an occasional armadillo, coati, or agouti for the naturalists.
jacamar- [jak-uh-mahr]-noun- any tropical American bird of the family Galbulidae, having a long bill and usually metallic green plumage above.  At an open spot he tried to attract bronzy jacamar by playing back his call.
ipecac- [ip-i-kak]-noun- a drug consisting of the dried roots of this plant, used as an emetic, purgative, etc., and as the source of emetine.  Ipecac is a medicine commonly used to induce vomiting in cases of accidental poisoning.
menhaden- [men-heyd-n]-noun- any marine clupeid fish of the genus Brevoortia, especially B. tyrannus, resembling a shad but with a more compressed body, common along the eastern coast of the U.S., and used for making oil and fertilizer.  Giant oyster reefs there have long since been harvested, as have the menhaden.
sachem- [sey-chuh m]-noun- the chief of a tribe.  Nearly all the American Indian tribes had two grades of chiefs, who may be distinguished as sachems and common chiefs.

4th-5th Grade Spelling List (8- Eponyms)

praline- [prah-leen, prey-, prah-leen]-noun- a French confection consisting of a caramel-covered almond or, sometimes, a hazelnut.  If you have a sweet tooth, don't miss the crispy pecan waffle, dressed with a pecan praline syrup. 
magnolia- [mag-nohl-yuh, -noh-lee-uh]-noun- any shrub or tree of the genus Magnolia, having large, usually fragrant flowers and an aromatic bark, much cultivated for ornament.  The native magnolias bloom from late spring to summer. 
boysenberry- [boi-zuh n-ber-ee, -suh n-]-noun- a blackberry-like fruit with a flavor similar to that of raspberries, developed by crossing various plants of the genus Rubus; named after R. Boysen, 20th-century American botanist, who bred it.   A boysenberry is a cross between a raspberry,and the pacific blackberry. 
hosta- [hoh-stuh, hos-tuh]-noun- any of various plants belonging to the genus Hosta, of the lily family, which includes the plantain lily.    Hosta and violets are particularly attractive to slugs.
poinsettia- [poin-set-ee-uh, -set-uh]-noun- a plant, Euphorbia ( Poinsettia ) pulcherrima, of the spurge family, native to Mexico and Central America, having variously lobed leaves and brilliant scarlet, pink, or white petal-like bracts; named after J. R. Poinsett (1799–1851), American minister to Mexico, who discovered the plant there in 1828.   Don't toss out your poinsettia plants with the holiday tree. 
macadamia- [mak-uh-dey-mee-uh]-noun- any Australian tree of the genus Macadamia, especially M. ternifolia, having whorled leaves and elongated clusters of pink flowers; named after John Macadam (1827--1865), Australian chemist.    Garnish with more toasted coconut flakes, caramelized macadamia nuts and mint. 
Apgar- [ap-gahr]-noun- 1909–74, U.S. physician: developed test to evaluate health of newborns; Apgar score. The apgar test checks every child for the coloration of their skin, heart rate, reflex, muscle tone, and their respiration. 
salmonella- [sal-muh-nel-uh]-noun- any of several rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic bacteria of the genus Salmonella, as S. typhosa, that may enter the digestive tract of humans and other mammals in contaminated food and cause abdominal pains and violent diarrhea; after Daniel E. Salmon (1850–1914), U.S. pathologist.    Because of the risk of salmonella and other nasty bugs, it is against the law to sell raw milk across state lines. 
newton- [noot-n, nyoot-n]-noun-Physics- the SI unit of force, equal to the force that produces an acceleration of one meter per second per second on a mass of one kilogram.   Newton came to calculus as part of his investigations in physics and geometry. 
saxophone- [sak-suh-fohn]-noun- a musical wind instrument consisting of a conical, usually brass tube with keys or valves and a mouthpiece with one reed; named after Adolphe Sax (1814--94), Belgian musical-instrument maker, who invented it (1846)   He also loves listening to music and playing his saxophone.  
tortoni- [tawr-toh-nee]-noun- ice cream made with eggs and heavy cream, often containing chopped cherries or topped with minced almonds or crumbled macaroons; said to be after an Italian café owner in Paris in the 18th century.    Biscuit tortoni makes a wonderful dessert that can be prepared ahead of time. 
Beaufort-[boh-fert]-noun- an international scale used to measure wind. The bottom of the scale is 0, which is calm air. The top of the scale is 12, which is hurricane wind; The scale is named after its creator, Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort of the British Navy.   The Beaufort scale is a scale for measuring wind speeds. 
greengage- [green-geyj]-noun- any of several varieties of light-green plums, as Prunus insititia italica; after Sir William Gage, 18th-century English botanist who introduced such varieties from France circa 1725.   Greengages are a sweet and juicy type of dessert plum that range in colour.  
angstrom- [ang-struh m]-noun- a unit of length, equal to one tenth of a millimicron, or one ten millionth of a millimeter, primarily used to express electromagnetic wavelengths; named after A. J. Ångström. An angstrom is a unit of length, used mostly in measuring wavelengths of light.
gardenia- [gahr-dee-nyuh, -nee-uh]-noun- any evergreen tree or shrub belonging to the genus Gardenia, of the madder family, native to the warmer parts of the Eastern Hemisphere, cultivated for its usually large, fragrant white flowers; after Alexander Garden (1730–91), American physician. The ceremony took place on a gardenia -scented mezzanine overlooking the hall. 
melba- [mel-buh]-noun- in various food preparations, esp. peach Melba (1905) and Melba toast (1925) is in honor of Nellie Melba, stage name of Australian-born operatic soprano Helen Mitchell. Peach melba is a dish made up of peaches that have been poached in vanilla, vanilla ice cream and a raspberry coulis. 
Avogadro- [ah-vuh-gah-droh]-noun- 1776–1856, Italian physicist and chemist; developed Avogadro's number, is 6.022 X 10^23, which is the number of molecules of any gas present in a volume of 22.41 L. It is the same for a heavy gas, such as carbon dioxide, as it is for the lightest, hydrogen. Avogadro's number is a key component in the study of chemistry. 
tantalize- [tan-tl-ahyz]-verb- to torment with, or as if with, the sight of something desired but out of reach; tease by arousing expectations that are repeatedly disappointed; from the punishment of Tantalus. Plan meals that tantalize taste buds, provide balance in your diet and promote well-being.
zinnia- [zin-ee-uh]-noun- any of several composite plants of the genus Zinnia, native to Mexico and adjacent areas, especially the widely cultivated species Z. elegans, having variously colored, many-rayed flower heads; named after J. G. Zinn (1727–59), German botanist.   It means cleaning up the winter detritus and planning ahead and wondering if it is the right time to plant the zinnia seeds. quisling-[kwiz-ling]-noun- a person who betrays his or her own country by aiding an invading enemy, often serving later in a puppet government; fifth columnist; after Vidkun Quisling (1887–1945), pro-Nazi Norwegian leader. A quisling is a traitor, more specifically a traitor who collaborates with the enemy to promote occupation and suppression of a native people.
begonia- [bih-gohn-yuh, -goh-nee-uh]-noun- any tropical plant belonging to the genus Begonia, including species cultivated for the handsome, succulent leaves and waxy flowers; named after Michel Bégon (1638–1710), French patron of science. The only native begonia is found in wet ravines often by waterfalls. 
samaritan- [suh-mar-i-tn]-noun- one who is compassionate and helpful to a person in distress; from the Good Samaritan. A copy of the story of the good Samaritan is something everyone should have. 
Panglossian- [pan-glos-ee-uh n, -glaw-see-, pang-]-adj.- characterized by or given to extreme optimism, especially in the face of unrelieved hardship or adversity; after Pangloss, an optimistic character in Voltaire's Candide. Panglossian is defined as being blindly or naively optimistic. 
quixote- [kee-hoh-tee, kwik-suh t]-noun-an enthusiastic but impractical and idealistic person; for Don Quixote of Cervantes' novel. Quixotic means someone who loves the idea of being the hero of the day, but is impractical. 
jeremiad- [jer-uh-mahy-uh d, -ad]-noun- a prolonged lamentation or mournful complaint; in reference to Jeremiah's Lamentations.  The jeremiad will always have its place in such a course. 
hector- [hek-ter]-noun- a blustering, domineering person; a bully; from the eldest son of Priam and husband of Andromache: the greatest Trojan hero in the Trojan War, killed by Achilles. A hector is a a blustering, domineering person like a bully. 
Geronimo- [juh-ron-uh-moh]-noun- a battle cry used by paratroopers, especially during World War II, on jumping from a plane; 1829–1909, American Apache Indian chief.  Aubrey Eberhardt attributes the first shouting of Geronimo, to a group of parachutists who saw a movie featuring Geronimo the night before a big leap.
shrapnel-[shrap-nl]-noun-Military-a hollow projectile containing bullets or the like and a bursting charge, designed to explode before reaching the target, and to set free a shower of missiles; named after Henry Shrapnel (1761–1842), English army officer, its inventor.  With dozens of bullet and shrapnel wounds, he knew he was lucky to have survived. 
vulcanize- [vuhl-kuh-nahyz]-verb- to treat (rubber) with sulfur and heat, thereby imparting strength, greater elasticity, durability, etc; from Vulcan, the name of the Roman god of fire.  These compounds reduce the time to vulcanize rubber from several hours to a few minutes.  
Frankenstein- [frang-kuh n-stahyn]-noun- a person who creates a monster or a destructive agency that cannot be controlled or that brings about the creator's ruin; after a character in Mary Shelley's novel of the same name (1818).  Victor Frankenstein is the creator of the monster Frankenstein in the work by Mary Shelley. 
Boswell- [boz-wel, -wuh l]-noun- any devoted biographer of a specific person; James, 1740–95, Scottish author: biographer of Samuel Johnson.   Ever wish you had a boswell who would keep track of all your research, writings, notes, appointments, contacts, instant messages, and e-mail so you wouldn't have to. 
ampere- [am-peer, am-peer]-noun- Electricity- the base SI unit of electrical current, equivalent to one coulomb per second, formally defined to be the constant current which if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular cross section, and placed one meter apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 × 10 −7 newton per meter of length; for An·dré Ma·rie -1775–1836, French physicist.  Parks often base the charge of the site upon the electrical ampere hookup. 
coulomb- [koo-lom, -lohm, koo-lom, -lohm]- the SI unit of quantity of electricity, equal to the quantity of charge transferred in one second across a conductor in which there is a constant current of one ampere; by French physicist Charles Augustin de Coulomb.  The units of electric field are volts per meter or newtons per coulomb. 
Fibonacci-[fib-o-nach-i]-noun-Leonardo-1170-1250, Italian mathematician; Italian mathematician who popularized the modern Arabic system of numerals in the western world and discovered the Fibonacci sequence of integers.  Fibonacci was known as the Leonardo of Pisa. 
Cupid- [kyoo-pid]-noun- Also called Amor. the ancient Roman god of love and the son of either Mars or Mercury and Venus, identified with Eros and commonly represented as a winged, naked, infant boy with a bow and arrows.   Cupid is often pictured with a bow and arrow, used to inspire love. 
Fletcherism- [flech-uh-riz-uh m]-noun- the practice of chewing food until it is reduced to a finely divided, liquefied mass; advocated by Horace Fletcher, 1849–1919, U.S. nutritionist.   It is a good habit to practice Fletcherism. 
yahoo- [yah-hoo, yey-, yah-hoo]-noun- an uncultivated or boorish person; lout; philistine; yokel; coined by Swift in Gulliver's Travels (1726). That yahoo came in and completely destroyed the party and embarrassed the host. 
diesel- [dee-zuh l, -suh l]-noun- noting a machine or vehicle powered by a diesel engine; after R. Diesel, the engine's inventor.   Newer kinds of combines are self-propelled and use diesel engines for power. 
bandersnatch- [ban-der-snach]-noun- an imaginary wild animal of fierce disposition; coined by Lewis Carroll in Through the Looking Glass (1871). The name Frumious Bandersnatch comes from the poem Jabberwocky by Lewis Carroll. 
Crusoe- [kroo-soh]-noun-Robinson- the hero of Daniel Defoe's novel Robinson Crusoe (1719), who survived being shipwrecked on a desert island.   Robinson Crusoe is a middle class man who is yearning for a life at sea. 
mentor- [men-tawr, -ter]-noun- a wise and trusted counselor or teacher; (in the Odyssey ) a loyal adviser of Odysseus entrusted with the care and education of Telemachus.  Unlike teachers or advisors, mentors often share a personal relationship with their students. 
Dracula- [drak-yuh-luh]-noun- Count, the central character in this novel: the archetype of a vampire; a novel (1897) by Bram Stoker; It was a nickname of Prince Vlad of Walachia (d.1476).  Dracula is the kind of the vampires. 

Challenge Words 
forsythia- [fawr-sith-ee-uh, -sahy-thee-uh, fer-]-noun- a shrub belonging to the genus Forsythia, of the olive family, native to China and southeastern Europe, species of which are cultivated for their showy yellow flowers, which blossom on the bare branches in early spring; after William Forsyth (1737–1804), English horticulturist. The forsythia and honeysuckle in the wooden boxes at either end are showing signs of spring. 
madeleine- [mad-l-in, mad-l-eyn]-noun-French Cookery- a small shell-shaped cake made of flour, eggs, sugar, and butter and baked in a mold; after Madeleine Paulmier, French pastry cook. The look and taste of these classic molded madeleines is anything but basic and they're sure to impress your guests. 
bromeliad- [broh-mee-lee-ad]-noun- any of numerous, usually epiphytic tropical American plants, having long, stiff leaves and showy flowers, and including the pineapple, Spanish moss, and many species grown as houseplants or ornamentals; the type genus of the family named after Olaus Bromelius (1639–1705), Swedish botanist.   If you have bromeliad plants, regularly rinse them out with a garden hose. 
mercerize- [mur-suh-rahyz]-verb- to treat (cotton yarns or fabric) with caustic alkali under tension, in order to increase strength, luster, and affinity for dye; named after John Mercer (1791–1866), English calico printer, the patentee (1850) of the process.   John Mercer created the process of how to mercerize material. 
Fahrenheit- [far-uh n-hahyt]-noun-Gabriel Daniel (1686-1736), German Physicist, who invented the mercury thermometer and devised the Fahrenheit temperature scale that bears his name.  It is 90 degrees Fahrenheit, which is hot but not too uncomfortable. 
narcissistic- [nahr-suh-sis-tik]-adj.- Psychoanalysis- tending to derive erotic gratification from admiration of one's own physical or mental attributes; from Narcisis of Greek Mythology.  From my perspective he is narcissistic, abrasive, and whiny. 
Lamborghini-[lam-bor-gee-ni]-noun- Ferruccio Lamborghini- an Italian manufacturer of luxury sports cars which is owned by Volkswagen Group through its subsidiary Audi.   He loved the speed of the Lamborghini.
dahlia- [dal-yuh, dahl- or, esp. British, deyl-]-noun- any composite plant of the genus Dahlia, native to Mexico and Central America and widely cultivated for its showy, variously colored flower heads; named after Anders Dahl (died 1789), Swedish botanist. When your flowers are up and ready to cut, see our dahlia cutting tips. 
Baedeker- [bey-di-ker]-noun- Karl, 1801–59, German publisher, notably of guidebooks for travelers. She sold him a Baedeker to the restaurants of the region. 
philippic- [fi-lip-ik]-noun- any speech or discourse of bitter denunciation; from any of the orations delivered by Demosthenes, the Athenian orator, in the 4th century b.c., against Philip, king of Macedon. A philippic is a fiery speech, or tirade, delivered to condemn a particular political actor. mendelevium-[men-dl-ee-vee-uh m]-noun-chemistery-a transuranic element; named after D. I. Mendeleev. Mendelevium is a synthetic element with the symbol Md. 
guillotine- [gil-uh-teen, gee-uh-; esp. for v. gil-uh-teen, gee-uh-]-noun- a device for beheading a person by means of a heavy blade that is dropped between two posts serving as guides: widely used during the French revolution; named after J. I. Guillotin (1738–1814), French physician who urged its use.   He barely escaped the guillotine, probably due to an administrative error. 
Bobadil-[bahb-uh-dil]-noun- a cowardly braggart; after Captain Bobadil, a character in Every Man in His Humor by Ben Jonson †1637 Eng. dramatist. A Bobadil is a military braggart of the first water. 
mesmerize- [mez-muh-rahyz, mes-]-verb- to hypnotize; to spellbind; fascinate. The images are beautiful enough, to mesmerize any who view them. 
gnathonic- [na-thon-ik]-adj.- sycophantic; fawning; from Gnathō, such a character in the Eunuchus, Roman comedy by Terence. We found 14 dictionaries with English definitions that include the word gnathonic.  
Pulitzer-[poo l-it-ser, pyoo-lit-]-noun- Joseph- 1847--1911, US newspaper publisher, born in Hungary. He established the Pulitzer prizes.  In drama, the Pulitzer went to Alfred Uhry for Driving Miss Daisy. pasteurize- [pas-chuh-rahyz, pas-tuh-]-verb- to expose (a food, as milk, cheese, yogurt, beer, or wine) to an elevated temperature for a period of time sufficient to destroy certain microorganisms, as those that can produce disease or cause spoilage or undesirable fermentation of food, without radically altering taste or quality; after Louis Pasteur (1822-95), Fr. chemist and bacteriologist. The milk is graded and tested to make sure that the milk is clean enough to pasteurize in the first place. 
Croesus- [kree-suh s]-noun- a very rich man; for the last king of Lydia (560--546), noted for his great wealth. The expression 'as rich as Croesus' is used today to mean fabulously rich.
braggadocio- [brag-uh-doh-shee-oh]-noun- a boasting person; braggart; after Braggadocchio, boastful character in Spenser's Faerie Queene (1590). No one likes a braggadocio.

4th-5th Grade Spelling List (7- Dutch)

cockatoo- [kok-uh-too, kok-uh-too]-noun- any of numerous large, noisy, crested parrots of the genera Cacatua, Callocephalon, Calyptorhynchus,  etc., of the Australasian region, having chiefly white plumage tinged with yellow, pink, or red: popular as a pet.   Cockatoos will eat certain people foods including rice, oranges, cheese, corn, pasta and some types of meat.
keelhaul- [keel-hawl]-verb- Nautical-to haul (an offender) under the bottom of a ship and up on the other side as a punishment.  The captain had to keelhaul the mutineers to restore order.
harpoon-[hahr-poon]-noun- a barbed, spearlike missile attached to a rope, and thrown byhand or shot from a gun, used for killing and capturing whales and large fish. The Harpoon was rigged with a hot wire that electrocutes the fish.
furlough- [fur-loh]-noun-  Military. A vacation or leave of absence granted to an enlisted person.  The forced furlough has meant the new regulations will not be available until the spring.
bowery- [bou-uh-ree]-adjective- leafy; shady: a bowery maze.  Once upon a time, the Bowery was all flophouses, whiskey joints, and legendary bums. 
easel- [ee-zuhl]-noun-a stand or frame for supporting or displaying at an angle an artist’s canvas, a blackboard, a china plate, etc.  Mounted on rails, the camera faced a railmounted easel holding the print paper.
holster- [hohl-ster]-noun- a sheath like carrying case for a firearm, attached to a belt, shoulder sling, or saddle.   You get to wear gear on your belt-hooks a holster for tools.
freebooter- [free-boo-ter]-noun- a person who goes about in search of plunder; pirate; buccaneer.   These men were notorious freebooters, famed for their cunning and bravery, and often for their generosity.
waffle- [wof-uhl]-noun- a batter cake with a pattern of deep indentations on each side, formed by the grid like design on each of the two hinged parts of the metal appliance in which the cake is baked.  The batter is poured into a fish-shaped mold and cooked in a waffle -iron.
trawl- [trawl]-noun- a strong fishing net for dragging along the sea bottom. Fish have been snared by gill and trawl nets with only a few hundred surviving.
uproar- [uhp-rawr, -rohr]-noun-  a state of violent and noisy disturbance, as of a multitude.  Keep pushing the boundaries on privacy until an uproar is provoked.
beleaguer- [bih-lee-ger]-verb- a surround with military forces.   The many pests and diseases that beleaguer commercial growers are not likely to plague home gardeners.
cruller- [kruhl-er]-noun- a rich, light cake cut from a rolled dough and deep-fried, usually having a twisted oblong shape and sometimes topped with sugar or icing.  They made war upon the dark hall in the double-decker, and upon the cruller bakery.
yacht- [yot]-noun- a vessel used for private cruising, racing, or other noncommercial purposes. No vessel seems safe, be it a supertanker or a private yacht.
wiseacre- [wahyz-ey-ker]-noun- a person who possesses or affects to possess great wisdom.  Baby Bob is a strange and, I think, wildly unpleasant sitcom about a baby that talks like an wiseacre adult.
brackish- [brak-ish]-adjective- slightly salt; having a salty or briny flavor. Each morning, brackish water is pumped from them into pans on the surface.
decoy- [dee-koi]-noun- a person who entices or lures another person or thing, as into danger, a trap, or the like.   Decoy weapons are a time-honored military tradition.
caboose- [kuh-boos]-noun- a car on a freight train, used chiefly as the crew's quarters and usually attached to the rear of a train.  Kids can enjoy a working video arcade inside a train caboose on the campgrounds.
buckwheat- [buhk-hweet]-noun- a plant, especially Fagopyrum esculentum,  cultivated for its triangular seeds, which are used as a feed for animals or made into a flour for human consumption, as in pancakes or cereal.    Soba is a kind of thin noodle made of buckwheat flour, served hot or cold.
walrus- [wawl-ruhs]-noun-a large marine mammal, Odobenus nosmarus,  of arctic seas, related to the seals, and having flippers, a pair of large tusks, and tough, wrinkled skin.
Walrus tusk ivory comes from two modified upper canines.
howitzer- [hou-it-ser]-noun- a cannon having a comparatively short barrel, used
especially for firing shells at a high angle of elevation, as for reaching a target behind cover or in a trench.  Two gun embrasures and one howitzer embrasure were closed later on to make room for a torpedo casemate.
crimp- [krimp]-verb- to press into small regular folds; make wavy.   Fold overhang under and press against rim of pie plate, then crimp decoratively.
bluff- [bluhf]-adjective- good-naturedly direct, blunt, or frank; heartily outspoken: 
a big,bluff, generous man.   The government, perhaps unsurprisingly, failed to call their bluff.
stipple-  [stip-uhl]-noun- to paint, engrave, or draw by means of dots or small touches. Abandonments may be indicated by stipple or crosshatch shading.
floss- [flaws, flos]-noun- the cottony fiber yielded by the silk-cotton tree. Children should never floss without an adult's help.
cruiser- [kroo-zer]-noun- a person or thing that cruises.  The beach cruiser bike comes fully loaded with helmet, basket, and total adorableness.
hustle- [huhs-uhl]-verb-to proceed or work rapidly or energetically.   People hustle to put each animal on a clean towel in a cardboard box that once held bananas.
klompen-[klopmn]-noun- a full-size wooden shoe worn in the low countries of the Netherlands.   Approximately 3 million pairs of klompen are made each year.
polder- [pohl-der]-noun-a tract of low land, especially in the Netherlands, reclaimed from the sea or other body of water and protected by dikes.  Few things are more beautiful than one of the narrow roads that run along the polder dikes.
bundle[buhn-dl]-noun-several objects or a quantity of material gathered or boundtogether: a bundle of hay. The objection maintains that language causes confusion that supports bundle theory.
catkin- [kat-kin]-noun-a spike of unisexual, a petalous flowers having scaly, usually 
deciduous bracts, as of a willow or birch.  Fall treatment is effective during catkin development.
splice- [splahys]-verb- to join together or unite (two ropes or parts of a rope) by the interweaving of strands.    Only now can both ends of the cable be brought aboard the ship at the same time and the final splice made.
flemish- [flem-ish]-adjective- of or pertaining to Flanders, its people, or their language.
Exhibition of works on paper that explores the Flemish master's debt to Italian Renaissance painting.
grabble- [grab-uhl]-verb- to feel or search with the hands; grope.  Every time the lights went out he had to grabble around for a flashlight.
huckster- [huhk-ster]-noun-a retailer of small articles, especially a peddler of fruits and vegetables; hawker.  But as a rogue, huckster and progressive, he is extraordinary.
frolic-[frol-ik]-noun- merry play; merriment; gaiety; fun.  Visitors can frolic in the snow and bring snowballs back down the mountain.
ravel- [rav-uh l]-verb- to tangle or entangle.   The sailors began to ravel the twine together to make a rope.
tattle- [tat-l]-verb- to let out secrets.  She wanted to tattle on her older sister for sneaking out.
scum- [skuhm]-noun- a film or layer of foul or extraneous matter that forms on the surface of a liquid.  Soap scum is formed when a calcium ion from hard water binds to the soap.
trek- [trek]-verb- to travel or migrate, especially slowly or with difficulty.   The pioneers made the long trek to the west from Nauvoo. 
scrabble- [skrab-uh l]-verb- to jostle or struggle for possession of something; grab or collect something in a disorderly way; scramble.   Preventive health care has already become neglected as the township hospitals   scrabble to make ends meet.
clapboard- [klab-erd, klap-bawrd, bohrd]-noun- Chiefly Northeastern U.S. a long, thin board, thicker along one edge than the other, used in covering the outer walls of buildings, being laid horizontally, the thick edge of each board overlapping the thin edge of the board below it.   There is a cluster of quaint yellow and blue rustic clapboard  buildings. 
gruff- [gruhf]-adj.- low and harsh; hoarse.   Today, he chose to be brief and gruff in his comments.
isinglass- [ahy-zuh n-glas, -glahs, ahy-zing-]-noun- a pure, transparent or translucent form of gelatin, obtained from the air bladders of certain fish, especially the sturgeon: used in glue and jellies and as a clarifying agent.   Isinglass is used in clarifying wine and beer and making glues and cement.
excise- [ek-sahyz, -sahys]-noun- an internal tax or duty on certain commodities, as liquor or tobacco, levied on their manufacture, sale, or consumption within the country.   Perez said, levies an excise tax on gasoline, but amounts vary.
blister-[blis-ter]-noun- a thin vesicle on the skin, containing watery matter or serum, as from a burn or other injury.  Warm or cold compresses can relieve pain and swelling and may keep a blister from forming.
rabbit- [rab-it]-noun-any of several soft-furred, large-eared, rodentlike burrowing mammals of the family Leporidae, allied with the hares and pikas in the order Lagomorpha, having a divided upper lip and long hind legs, usually smaller than the hares and mainly distinguished from them by bearing blind and furless young in nests rather than fully developed young in the open.    It may be the end of the road for an endangered species of rabbit.                                                                                                                                                      package- [pak-ij]-noun- a container, as a box or case, in which something is or may be packed.    It arrived in a plain brown package  by registered mail, insured for one million dollars.
muddle- [muhd-l]-verb- to mix up in a confused or bungling manner; jumble.   Marijuana is infamous for its ability to muddle thoughts and dull reactions.
handsome- [han-suh m]-adj.- having an attractive, well-proportioned, and imposing appearance suggestive of health and strength; good-looking.   He was a handsome gentleman, and the ladies liked him.
foist- [foist]-verb- to force upon or impose fraudulently or unjustifiably (usually followed by on  or upon ).  This is the single most unpopular, unwanted nanny state legislation ever foisted upon the Scottish nation.
 staple- [stey-puh l]-noun- a short piece of wire bent so as to bind together papers, sections of a book, or the like, by driving the ends through the sheets and clinching them on the other side.  Repeat on remaining two sides, then staple all around the edges, pulling cloth tight.
gulden- [gool-dn]-noun- the former standard monetary unit of the Netherlands, divided into 100 cents; replaced by the euro in 2002.  The Netherlands formerly  used the gulden,  in 2002 they switched to the euro. 
mart- [mahrt]-noun- market; trading center; trade center.   At a nearby grocery mart, bags of organic carrots sat right next to the non-organic ones.
screen- [skreen]-noun- a movable or fixed device, usually consisting of a covered frame, that provides shelter, serves as a partition, etc.  They brought in many screens to partition off sections of the office for workspaces. 
guilder- [gil-der]-noun- a silver or nickel coin and monetary unit of the Netherlands until the euro was adopted, equal to 100 cents; florin.  The guilder is another name for gulden.
etch- [ech]-verb- to cut, bite, or corrode with an acid or the like; engrave with an acid or the like, as to form a design in furrows that when charged with ink will give an impression on paper.    Braided dried rivulets etch white patterns over the surface as well. 
Netherlands- [neth-er-luh ndz]-noun- a kingdom in W Europe, bordering on the North Sea, Germany, and Belgium. 13,433 sq. mi. (34,790 sq. km). Capitals:  Amsterdam and  The Hague.  They visited the beautiful windmill in the Netherlands.
dune- [doon, dyoon]-noun- a sand hill or sand ridge formed by the wind, usually in desert regions or near lakes and oceans.  We trudge down the dune, surprising the lady who lives in the valley.
croon- [kroon]-verb- to sing or hum in a soft, soothing voice.   Entertainment is provided at the piano bar, where locals and tourists have also been known to croon their favorites. 
ticket- [tik-it]-noun- a slip, usually of paper or cardboard, serving as evidence that the holder has paid a fare or admission or is entitled to some service, right, or the like.   He does not ask for a round-trip ticket, but for a return ticket.
buckwagon-[buk-wagn]-noun- a large strong wagon with the frame projecting over the wheels that is used in southern Africa for hauling loads.   We took a hayride on the buckwagon.
hock- [hok]-noun- the joint in the hind leg of a horse, cow, etc., above the fetlock joint, corresponding anatomically to the ankle in humans.   The strength of the hocks are very important as this is the most active joint in the horse hind legs.
boodle- [bood-l]-noun- stolen goods; loot; booty; swag.  They are supposed to have a pile of boodle stashed away. 
guy- [gahy]-noun- Informal- a man or boy.  Knowing human resources, they will probably find an excuse to fire the guy.
daffodil- [daf-uh-dil]-noun- a bulbous plant, Narcissus pseudonarcissus,  of the amaryllis family, having solitary, yellow, nodding flowers that bloom in the spring.  Burton incorporated the rose, thistle, daffodil and shamrock into the lace.
loiter- [loi-ter]-verb- to linger aimlessly or as if aimless in or about a place.  Residents are asked to move along if they loiter on streets at night.
potash- [pot-ash]-noun- potassium carbonate, especially the crude impure form obtained from wood ashes.  Potash is a mineral which is an essential ingredient in fertilizer.
scow- [skou]-noun- any of various vessels having a flat-bottomed rectangular hull with sloping ends, built in various sizes with or without means of propulsion, as barges, punts, rowboats, or sailboats.  The trouble begins when the husband decides to move the scow to a better location.
wintergreen- [win-ter-green]-noun- a small, creeping, evergreen shrub, Gaultheria procumbens,  of the heath family, common in eastern North America, having white, nodding, bell-shaped flowers, a bright-red, berrylike fruit, and aromatic leaves that yield a volatile wintergreen oil.   The wintergreen shrub further adapts to its short growing season by retaining its leaves year-round.
trigger- [trig-er]-noun- a small projecting tongue in a firearm that, when pressed by the finger, actuates the mechanism that discharges the weapon.  He removed his finger from the trigger on advice from the police.
stripe- [strahyp]-noun- a relatively long, narrow band of a different color, appearance, weave, material, or nature from the rest of a surface or thing.   There stood a beautiful zebra with their magnificent stripes.
bruin- [broo-in]-noun- a bear, especially a European brown bear.   A bruin is another name for a brown bear.
skipper- [skip-er]-noun- the master or captain of a vessel, especially of a small trading or fishing vessel.  When a skipper dies or retires, his quota goes back into a pool to be re-allocated.
waywiser-[way-wiyz-r]-noun- An instrument for measuring the distance which one has traveled on the road; an odometer, pedometer, or perambulator.   She used a waywiser to measure the distance she ran.
spoor- [spoor, spawr, spohr]-noun- a track or trail, especially that of a wild animal pursued as game.  They are looking for their dinner and sooner or later they'll catch our spoor.
mizzle- [miz-uh l]-verb- to rain in fine drops; drizzle; mist.   Mizzle is a very light rain; stronger than mist but less than a shower.
school- [skool]-noun- an institution where instruction is given, especially to persons under college age.  Dinosaurs regularly popped up during my early elementary school education.
pickle- [pik-uh l]-noun- a cucumber that has been preserved in brine, vinegar, or the like.
Patrons can also order box lunches that include fruit, homemade chips, a pickle and a cookie.
snuff- [snuhf]-verb- to draw in through the nose by inhaling.    The English aristocracy had a habit of snuffing powder-like tobacco.

Challenge Words 
mynheer- [mahyn-hair, -heer]-noun- the term of address and title of respect corresponding to sir  and Mr.  A Dutch title of address equivalent to Sir when used alone or to Mr. when placed before a name.
waterzooi-[vah-tuhr-zoi]-noun- a stew of fish or chicken and vegetables in a seasoned stock thickened with cream and egg yolks.   Some modern waterzooi versions feature chicken and fish.
flense-[flens]-verb- to strip the blubber or the skin from (a whale, seal, etc.).   To flense is a whaling term that describes the removal of the blubber from the carcass of the dead whale. 
muishond- [mīs-hänt, ˈmās-]-noun- either of two southern African weasels that are black with white stripes and that emit a fetid odor when disturbed.  There is small slender burrowing muishond with white top of the head.
witloof- [wit-lohf]-noun- widely cultivated herb with leaves valued as salad green; either curly serrated leaves or broad flat ones that are usually blanched.    Another word for witloof is endive.
springbok- [spring-bok]-noun- a gazelle, Antidorcas marsupialis, of southern Africa, noted for its habit of springing into the air when alarmed.    Gazelles and springbok are known for their speed and leaping abilities.
maelstrom- [meyl-struh m]-noun- a large, powerful, or violent whirlpool.   A maelstrom is a powerful circular current of water usually the result of conflicting tides.
bobbejaan-[bob-buh-yahn]-noun- a baboon.  They had many bobbejaan at the South African zoo.
keeshond- [keys-hond, kees-]-noun- one of a Dutch breed of small dogs having thick, silver-gray hair tipped with black and a tail carried over the back.   The Keeshond is lively, alert, and intelligent, qualities that won him status as the most beloved dog in Holland.
voortrekker-[for-trek-ker]-noun- a So. African pioneer; esp : one of the Boers who took part in the trek from Cape Colony to the Transvaal in 1834–37.  The South African voortrekkers were just like our American pioneers. 
uitlander- [ahyt-lan-der, oit-]-noun- a foreigner, especially a British settler in the Boer republics prior to the formation of the Union of South Africa.   The prospect of gold lured large numbers of uitlanders to Johannesburg.
hollandaise-[ha-luhn-dayz]-noun- a rich sauce made basically of butter, egg yolks, and lemon juice or vinegar.  Hollandaise sauce is always served with ‘Eggs Benedict’.
galjoen-[gal-yuh n]-noun- a compressed deep-bodied percoid food and sport fish (Dichistius capensis) common in shallow water and surf along the coasts of southern Africa; also : any of several related fishes —often used with a qualifying term.   The galjoen is the national fish of South Africa.
schipperke- [skip-er-kee, -kuh]-noun- one of a Belgian breed of small dogs having erect ears and a thick, black coat, originally used as a watchdog on boats in the Netherlands and Belgium.   Schipperke in Dutch literally means little boatman.
apartheid- [uh-pahrt-heyt, -hahyt]-noun- (in the Republic of South Africa) a rigid policy of segregation of the nonwhite population.   Apartheid, which means apartness in Afrikaans, started in 1948 in South Africa as a political movement of the National Party.
hartebeest- [hahr-tuh-beest, hahrt-beest]-noun- any large African antelope of the genus Alcelaphus,  having ringed horns that curve backward: some species are endangered.   The hartebeest can digest a larger quantity of food than other bovids.
keest-[keest]-noun- inner vital substance : marrow.   She needed a keest transplant soon.
wainscot- [weyn-skuh t, -skot, -skoht]-noun- wood, especially oak and usually in the form of paneling, for lining interior walls.   Paralelling the stair is a handsomely paneled wainscot with a rounded chair rail.
roodebok-[roo-duh-bahk]-noun-an impala.  They had many roodeboks at the national reserve.