What's all the "Buzz" about?

What you need to do-
Please read the parent letter and the rules and regulations on the side tab bar. If you have a child in 4th or 5th grade, you need to print off each of the 14 different language sections and staple together or they can study them online. Have your child study these words for the next couple of months. The top 2 winners from our elementary will go on to the Iron County District Spelling Bee held at the District Office Building on March 13th. There will be some big prizes this year! Winner gets an ipad mini. If your child does not have access to the internet or paper to print, there are a few copies in the office that you could pick up.

If you have a child in 1st-3rd grade, you need to print off spelling list A & B and have your child study them for the next couple of months. If you cannot view list A, you just click on the button "older posts" at the bottom of the page and it will redirect to Spelling List A.

Monday, November 4, 2013

4th-5th Grade Spelling List (14- Old English)

quell- [kwel]-verb- to suppress; put an end to; extinguish. He practiced endlessly to quell his nervousness.
belie- [bih-lahy]-verb- to show to be false; contradict. The simplicity of text and art belie masterly craftsmanship. 
brogue- [brohg]-noun- an Irish accent in the pronunciation of English. When he became excited, however, his brogue grow thicker. 
clerestory- [kleer-stawr-ee, -stohr-ee]-noun- Architecture . a portion of an interior rising above adjacent rooftops and having windows admitting daylight to the interior. Clerestory windows gather north light and transmit it into living area.
cormorant- [kawr-mer-uh nt]-noun- any of several voracious, totipalmate seabirds of the family Phalacrocoracidae, as Phalacrocorax carbo, of America, Europe, and Asia, having a long neck and a distensible pouch under the bill for holding captured fish, used in China for catching fish. Effects of management on double-crested cormorant nesting colony fidelity. 
concatenate- [kon-kat-n-eyt]-verb(used with verb)- to link together; unite in a series or chain. Concatenate each value in a list with constant piece of text. 
corrugate- [kawr-uh-geyt]-verb- to draw or bend into folds or alternate furrows and ridges. They tried to corrugate the color paper into a fan. 
impugn- [im-pyoon]-verb- to challenge as false (another's statements, motives, etc.); cast doubt upon. These findings are not meant to impugn your character. 
intercollegiate- [in-ter-kuh-lee-jit]-adj.- taking place between or participating in activities between different colleges. The longest winning streak in the history of intercollegiate varsity sports has ended. 
uncouth- [uhn-kooth]- awkward, clumsy, or unmannerly: uncouth behavior; an uncouth relative who embarrasses the family. He showed up rough, uncouth and unattractive, but he did start his law practice.
Newtonian- [noo-toh-nee-uh n, nyoo-]-adj- of or pertaining to Sir Isaac Newton or to his theories or discoveries. A Newtonian is someone who follows Sir Isaac Newton and his theories. 
barrow- [bar-oh]-noun- a flat, rectangular frame used for carrying a load, especially such a frame with projecting shafts at each end for handles. Hefting our suitcases into the barrow, he told us supper was waiting for us. 
dearth- [durth]-noun- an inadequate supply; scarcity; lack. The problem isn't a dearth of fish, it's an abundance of people. 
bower- [bou-er]-noun- a leafy shelter or recess; arbor. Mark a circle on the ground to represent the ground underneath the bower with landscaping spray paint. 
paddock- [pad-uh k]-noun- a small, usually enclosed field near a stable or barn for pasturing or exercising animals. Traditionally the cow, or cows, would stand in the field or paddock while being milked. 
blithe- [blahyth, blahyth]-adj.- joyous, merry, or gay in disposition; glad; cheerful. Everyone loved her for her blithe spirit. 
keen- [keen]- characterized by strength and distinctness of perception; extremely sensitive or responsive. Rhinos have sharp hearing and a keen sense of smell. 
mongrel- [muhng-gruhl, mong-]-noun- a dog of mixed or indeterminate breed. Our search begins at a local shelter filled with pit bulls, old guard dogs and a three-legged mongrel.
reckless- [rek-lis]-adj.- utterly unconcerned about the consequences of some action; without caution; careless. Our work involves some investigation, but there's a limit, after which it becomes reckless adventure. 
alderman- [awl-der-muh n]-noun- a member of a municipal legislative body, especially of a municipal council. When appeal to the alderman proved useless, the truckman resorted to strategy. 
whirlpool- [hwurl-pool, wurl-]-noun- water in swift, circular motion, as that produced by the meeting of opposing currents, often causing a downward spiraling action. It is similar to how water current is pulled into a whirlpool. 
belay- [bih-ley]-verb-Mountain Climbing- to secure (a person) by attaching to one end of a rope. In rock climbing, the belay rope is your umbilical cord. 
cleanser- [klen-zer]-noun- a preparation for cleansing, as a liquid or powder for scouring sinks, bathtubs, etc., or a cream for cleaning the face. Wash your hands with soap or antibacterial cleanser to prevent infection. 
dreary- [dreer-ee]-adj.- sorrowful; sad. Thank you for helping me start my dreary work day with a hearty laugh.
sallow-[sal-oh]-adj.- (esp of human skin) of an unhealthy pale or yellowish colour. His features are pinched and drawn, his complexion sallow.
lithe- [lahyth]-adj.- bending readily; pliant; limber; supple; flexible. She has the lithe body of a ballerina.
gristle- [gris-uh l]-noun- cartilage, especially in meats. Other than not eating the fatty gristle on a ribeye, they do not diet. 
earwig- [eer-wig]-noun- any of numerous elongate, nocturnal insects of the order Dermaptera, having a pair of large, movable pincers at the rear of the abdomen. Earwigs are omnivorous and will eat almost anything they come across. 
fickle- [fik-uh l]-adj.- likely to change, especially due to caprice, irresolution, or instability; casually changeable. Popularizing science is a tough, fine, fickle line between too simple and too complex. nestle- [nes-uh l]-verb- to put or press confidingly or affectionately. She nestled her head on his shoulder. 
fennel- [fen-l]-noun- a plant, Foeniculum vulgare, of the parsley family, having feathery leaves and umbels of small, yellow flowers. Fennel , finocchio or anise-whatever it's called, this green leafstalk lends exotic flavor to meals. 
nostril- [nos-truh l]-noun- either of the two external openings of the nose. Try to catch the discharge outside the nostril on a tissue or swab. 
abide- [uh-bahyd]-verb- to remain; continue; stay. She promised to abide with them for awhile. 
behest- [bih-hest]-noun- a command or directive. The courts should not be making law at the behest of big companies.
slaughter- [slaw-ter]-verb- to slay in great numbers; massacre. These texts strongly condemn the slaughter of animals and meat eating.
gospel- [gos-puh l]-noun- the teachings of Jesus and the apostles; the Christian revelation. They could also use their language to share the gospel in other countries. 
furlong- [fur-lawng, -long]-noun- a unit of distance, equal to 220 yards or ⅛ mile. Out back, horses might be working out in their pool, or on a nine furlong track. 
linseed- [lin-seed]-noun-" seed of flax," widely regarded in ancient times as a source of medical treatments. There are no sharp edges, and the wood is finished with linseed oil. 
nether- [neth-er]-adj.- lying or believed to lie beneath the earth's surface; infernal. The bug must be extracted from the nether regions with forceps. 
fathom- [fath-uh m]-noun- a unit of length equal to six feet (1.8 meters): used chiefly in nautical measurements. They went diving down 4 fathoms under the water. 
nightingale- [nahyt-n-geyl, nahy-ting-]-noun- any of several small, Old World, migratory birds of the thrush family, especially Luscinia megarhynchos, of Europe, noted for the melodious song of the male, given chiefly at night during the breeding season. Those who live near nightingale nests know all too well that the males often sing all night. 
farthing- [fahr-th ing]-noun- a former bronze coin of Great Britain, equal to one-fourth of a British penny: withdrawn in 1961. Not a farthing did it yield, but it was time exceedingly well spent. 
threshold- [thresh-ohld, thresh-hohld]-noun- Psychology, Physiology- the point at which a stimulus is of sufficient intensity to begin to produce an effect. Some people have a low threshold of pain. 
kith- [kith]-noun- acquaintances, friends, neighbors, or the like; persons living in the same general locality and forming a more or less cohesive group. His intent was simple, keep kith and kin informed while cutting down on e-mail traffic. 
wanton- [won-tn]-adj.- done, shown, used, etc., maliciously or unjustifiably. They made a wanton attack on our country. 
loam- [lohm]-noun- a rich, friable soil containing a relatively equal mixture of sand and silt and a somewhat smaller proportion of clay. The enclosure smelled of warm straw and the wet loam of early spring.
yield- [yeeld]-verb- to give forth or produce by a natural process or in return for cultivation. This farm yields enough fruit to meet all our needs. 
mattock- [mat-uh k]-noun- an instrument for loosening the soil in digging, shaped like a pickax, but having one end broad instead of pointed. Digging tools such as a mattock are useful for removing underground parts. 
hawthorn- [haw-thawrn]-noun- any of numerous plants belonging to the genus Crataegus, of the rose family, typically a small tree with stiff thorns, certain North American species of which have white or pink blossoms and bright-colored fruits and are cultivated in hedges. There had been another frost, the perfect time to go hunting for rose hips and hawthorn berries.
tithe- [tahyth]-noun- the tenth part of agricultural produce or personal income set apart as an offering to God or for works of mercy, or the same amount regarded as an obligation or tax for the support of the church, priesthood, or the like. Today, tithes usually refer to contributions made to a religious organization through a cash, check or stock donation. 
behoove- [bih-hoov]-verb- to be necessary or proper for, as for moral or ethical considerations; be incumbent on. It behooves the court to weigh evidence impartially. 
forlorn- [fawr-lawrn]-adj.- desolate or dreary; unhappy or miserable, as in feeling, condition, or appearance. Researchers studying older people have found, cortisol might be helpful in getting the forlorn out of bed. 
quiver- [kwiv-er]-verb- to shake with a slight but rapid motion; vibrate tremulously; tremble. When threatened, the bird will let its wings hang limply and quiver violently. 
hustings- [huhs-tingz]-noun- (before 1872) the temporary platform on which candidates for the British Parliament stood when nominated and from which they addressed the electors. And out on the hustings, campaigners are gearing up. 
aspen- [as-puhn]-noun- any of various poplars, as Populus tremula, of Europe, and P. tremuloides (quaking aspen) or P. alba (white aspen) of America, having soft wood and alternate ovate leaves that tremble in the slightest breeze. This is a deciduous tree that growns 40 to 50 feet tall with a width of 20 to 30 feet. 
mermaid- [mur-meyd]-noun- (in folklore) a female marine creature, having the head, torso, and arms of a woman and the tail of a fish. And the mermaid, or siren, will be freed from her circle. 
anvil- [an-vil]-noun- a heavy iron block with a smooth face, frequently of steel, on which metals, usually heated until soft, are hammered into desired shapes. Hot coals glowed in a dark interior, where a craftsman was bent over an anvil hammering silver. 
barley- [bahr-lee]-noun- the grain of this plant, used as food and in making beer, ale, and whiskey. Their results suggest that gladiators ate a diet rich in barley and beans. 
linden- [lin-duh n]-noun- any tree of the genus Tilia, as T. americana (American linden) or T. europaea (European linden) having fragrant yellowish-white flowers and heart-shaped leaves, grown as an ornamental or shade tree. A Linden tree, which is a European nickname for the Tilia, is a large deciduous tree. 
hassock- [has-uh k]-noun- a thick, firm cushion used as a footstool or for kneeling. Hassocks are low, cushioned, small padded stools. 
orchard- [awr-cherd]-noun- an area of land devoted to the cultivation of fruit or nut trees. The original gardens began simply with a fruit orchard, which was expanded upon by subsequent generations. 
hearth- [hahrth]-noun- the floor of a fireplace, usually of stone, brick, etc., often extending a short distance into a room. He squatted at the hearth and went back to roasting his corn.
watery- [waw-tuh-ree, wot-uh-]-adj.- full of or abounding in water, as soil or a region; soggy; boggy. Not bad if you can get past the watery texture and slightly curdled appearance. 
fiend- [feend]-noun- a diabolically cruel or wicked person. A fiend is a person of great wickedness or maliciousness. 
goatee- [goh-tee]-noun- a man's beard trimmed to a tuft or point on the chin. Andre was lean and had narrow eyes and a cursory goatee. 
earthenware- [ur-thuh n-wair]-noun- pottery of baked or hardened clay, especially any of the coarse, opaque varieties. Here visitors are greeted with a large and arrestingly modern earthenware bowl. 
windily- [win-duh-lee]-adj.- In a verbose manner. She explained her ideas windily. dealership- [dee-ler-ship]-noun- authorization to sell a commodity. He got the dealership for the area after a long investigation into his credit. 
bookkeeping- [boo k-kee-ping]-noun- the work or skill of keeping account books or systematic records of money transactions (distinguished from accounting ). Bookkeeping might be a better field for you if personal interaction is a problem. 
fiery- [fahyuh r-ee, fahy-uh-ree]-adj.- consisting of, attended with, characterized by, or containing fire. The scientists did tests on the volcano's fiery discharge. 
learned- [lur-nid]-adj.- having much knowledge; scholarly; erudite. Eistein was a very learned man. 
nosiest- [noh-zee-est]-adj.- nosy; unduly curious about the affairs of others; prying; meddlesome. He won the 'nosiest man' contest for the third time.
creepy- [kree-pee]-adj.- having or causing a creeping sensation of the skin, as from horror or fear.
The old guy in the corner at a college party can come off as creepy. 
errand- [er-uh nd]-noun- a short and quick trip to accomplish a specific purpose, as to buy something, deliver a package, or convey a message, often for someone else. She left the children home while she ran errands. 
daily- [dey-lee]-adj.- of, done, occurring, or issued each day or each weekday. Even phone companies are getting in on the daily deals craze. 
gnat- [nat]-noun- any of certain small flies, especially the biting gnats or punkies of the family Ceratopogonidae, the midges of the family Chironomidae, and the black flies of the family Simuliidae. He would, however, confirm that the bug he swallowed was a gnat. 
broadleaf- [brawd-leef]-noun- any of several cigar tobaccos having broad leaves. They sold quality broadleaf cigars at their shop. 
stringy- [string-ee]-adj.- resembling a string or strings; consisting of strings or string-like pieces. His hair is pasted to his scalp in long, stringy strands.
dairy- [dair-ee]-noun- the business of a dairy farm, concerned with the production and treatment of milk and cream and the manufacture of butter and cheese. Strong bones need calcium and one of the best ways to get it is from dairy products. 
workmanship- [wurk-muh n-ship]-noun- the art or skill of a workman or workwoman. The medal, which is about the size of a fifty-cent piece, is a fine piece of workmanship. 
newfangled- [noo-fang-guh ld, -fang-, nyoo-]-adj.- of a new kind or fashion. There is so much to protest this newfangled idea, it's not even funny. 
timely- [tahym-lee]-adj.- occurring at a suitable time; seasonable; opportune; well-timed. Sprains and inflammation can be eased by the timely application of some ice or a cold compress. 
dogged- [daw-gid, dog-id]-adj.- persistent in effort; stubbornly tenacious. My point is not that dogged persistence and obsessive research productivity eventually pay off. 
mootable-[moo t-uh-buh l]-adj.-debatable; Capable of being mooted. That is a mootable point. 
womanly- [woo m-uh n-lee]-adj.- like or befitting a woman; feminine; not masculine or girlish. She was becoming very womanly for her age. 
manhandle- [man-han-dl, man-han-dl]-verb- to handle roughly. To manhandle is to handle roughly or to shove or push or drag around. 
folksiness- [fohk-see-ness]-noun- the state of being folksy. Both were derided by intellectual elites, including those in their parties, for the folksiness of their ways. 
worrisome- [wur-ee-suh m, wuhr-]-adj.- worrying, annoying, or disturbing; causing worry. The content of the blog may be less worrisome than the fact of the blog itself. 
roughhewn- [ruhf-hyoon]-adj.- of stone or timber; shaped roughly without finishing. Half-a-dozen stools against a bench and a roundish communal table of the same or similar roughhewn wood. 
knavery- [ney-vuh-ree]-noun- action or practice characteristic of a knave. The world is so wicked and so old, that it is bard to invent a new knavery. 
hurdle- [hur-dl]-noun- a difficult problem to be overcome; obstacle. The second hurdle for a would-be lawyer is the bar exam itself. 
kipper- [kip-er]-noun- a fish, especially a herring, that has been cured by splitting, salting, drying, and smoking. Kippers are small fish with their heads still intact that have been gutted and then is cured by either salting, pickling or cold smoking. 
hundredth- [huhn-dridth, -dritth]-adj.- next after the ninety-ninth; being the ordinal number for 100. Elite runners can win or lose by a hundredth of a second. 
icicle- [ahy-si-kuh l]-noun- a pendent, tapering mass of ice formed by the freezing of dripping water. Starting from the tip of the icicle, he used the snow shovel to break the icicle into smaller portions.
pinafore- [pin-uh-fawr, -fohr]-noun- a child's apron, usually large enough to cover the dress and sometimes trimmed with flounces. When paired with a belt, a pinafore can give the wearer a more attractive, feminine look. 
yieldable- [yeel-duh-buh l]-adj.- capable of yielding or of producing a yield. Thus, a yieldable coupling serves a clutching function between driving and driven parts. 
hue- [hyoo or, often, yoo]-noun- a gradation or variety of a color; tint. Every light source has a slight hue or color cast to it.

Challenge Words 
heifer- [hef-er]-noun- a young cow over one year old that has not produced a calf. A heifer is an immature female bovine that has not had a calf. 
mistletoe- [mis-uh l-toh]-noun- a European plant, Viscum album, having yellowish flowers and white berries, growing parasitically on various trees, used in Christmas decorations. Up above her was a tree in a pearly cloud of mistletoe. 
salve- [sav, sahv]-noun- a medicinal ointment for healing or relieving wounds and sores. More beeswax and cocoa butter will make a stiffer salve. 
kirtle- [kur-tl]-noun- a woman's loose gown, worn in the Middle Ages. The mere rustle of a silken kirtle was sufficient to make him bring his cowl down over his eyes. 
Wiccan- [wik-uh n]-noun- a practitioner of wicca; the cult or practice of witchcraft. The Wiccan religion is all about nature and the spiritual world around us. 
shrieval- [shree-vuh l]-adj.- of, belonging to, or relating to a sheriff. The turned the old building in to a shrieval office. 
chary- [chair-ee]-adj.- cautious or careful; wary. Schneiderman is chary of talking too much now about his investigation.

4th-5th Grade Spelling List (13- Greek)

lethargy- [leth-er-jee]-noun- the quality or state of being drowsy and dull, listless and unenergetic, or indifferent and lazy; apathetic or sluggish inactivity. Yet there was no sign of lethargy or sluggishness anywhere about it.
anomalous- [uh-nom-uh-luh s]-adj- deviating from or inconsistent with the common order, form, or rule; irregular; abnormal. Advanced forms of life may be anomalous in the universe. 
aphelion- [uh-fee-lee-uh n, uh-feel-yuh n, ap-hee-lee-uh n] -noun - the point in the orbit of a planet or a comet at which it is farthest from the sun. What it says is that the neighborhood is what goes from perihelion to aphelion. 
asymptote- [as-im-toht]-noun- a straight line approached by a given curve as one of the variables in the equation of the curve approaches infinity. Therefore, launch at any other time would be targeted to a slightly non-optimal asymptote. 
idiosyncrasy- [id-ee-uh-sing-kruh-see, -sin-]-noun- a characteristic, habit, mannerism, or the like, that is peculiar to an individual. An idiosyncrasy is a noun which refers to a person's behavior and even habits. 
pneumonia- [noo-mohn-yuh, -moh-nee-uh, nyoo-]-noun- an acute disease of the lungs, caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae and characterized by fever, a cough with blood-tinged phlegm, and difficult breathing. He's had pneumonia for the last month and wasn't feeling up to it. 
onomatopoeia- [on-uh-mat-uh-pee-uh, ‐mah-tuh‐]-noun- the formation of a word, as cuckoo, meow, honk, or boom, by imitation of a sound made by or associated with its referent; the use of imitative and naturally suggestive words for rhetorical, dramatic, or poetic effect. Discuss rhyming, alliteration and onomatopoeia to encourage interesting names for bars. 
stochastic- [stuh-kas-tik]-adj- of or pertaining to a process involving a randomly determined sequence of observations each of which is considered as a sample of one element from a probability distribution. Open source communities are hierarchical, not stochastic.
triskaidekaphobia- [tris-kahy-dek-uh-foh-bee-uh, tris-kuh-]-noun- fear or a phobia concerning the number 13. Triskaidekaphobia is a fear of the no. 13, considered to be a superstition.
theism- [thee-iz-uh m]-noun- the belief in one God as the creator and ruler of the universe, without rejection of revelation (distinguished from deism ). Theism can be sub-divided into monotheism (belief that there is one God) or polytheism (belief that there is more than one God).
triptych- [trip-tik]-noun- Fine Arts. a set of three panels or compartments side by side, bearing pictures, carvings, or the like. It is an allegorical, complicated triptych with hundreds of details and with curious unclothed people.
troglodyte-[trog-luh-dahyt]-noun- a prehistoric cave dweller. He threw out troglodyte, moron or other
epithet he cared to hurl. 

ptarmigan- [tahr-mi-guhn]-noun- any of several grouses of the genus Lagopus, of mountainous and cold northern regions, having feathered feet. More than any other grouse, ptarmigan seem unconcerned about humans.
android- [an-droid]-noun- an automaton in the form of a human being. Until the android troopers showed up, nobody ever got shot, nobody was ever killed.
chronic- [kron-ik]-adj.- constant; habitual; inveterate. For insomniacs, theirs is often a chronic condition.
biopsy- [bahy-op-see]-noun-Medical-the removal for diagnostic study of a piece of tissue from a living body. Days later, a biopsy revealed a fast-growing cancer in her body. 
irony- [ahy-ruh-nee, ahy-er-]-noun- the use of words to convey a meaning that is the opposite of its literal meaning. So the irony is this: technology is freeing us from technology. 
automaton- [aw-tom-uh-ton, -tn]-noun- a mechanical figure or contrivance constructed to act as if by its own motive power; robot. It was the first type of that kind of underwater automaton to do that type of work. 
enthusiasm- [en-thoo-zee-az-uh m]-noun- absorbing or controlling possession of the mind by any interest or pursuit; lively interest. He shows marked enthusiasm for his studies. 
synopsis- [si-nop-sis]-noun- a brief or condensed statement giving a general view of some subject. The synopsis of the play begins with a street brawl between Montagues and Capulets. 
homogeneous- [hoh-muh-jee-nee-uh s, -jeen-yuh s, hom-uh-]-adj.- composed of parts or elements that are all of the same kind; not heterogeneous. The designers like the idea of having mismatched dishes and flatware for an eclectic, rather than a homogeneous, look. 
odyssey- [od-uh-see]-noun- a long series of wanderings or adventures, especially when filled with notable experiences, hardships, etc. They decided to include Denmark on their European odyssey. 
megalopolis- [meg-uh-lop-uh-lis]-noun- an urban region, especially one consisting of several large cities and suburbs that adjoin each other. The area is already something of an urban megalopolis.
acme- [ak-mee]-noun- the highest point; summit; peak. The empire was at the acme of its power. synonym- [sin-uh-nim]-noun- a word having the same or nearly the same meaning as another in the language, as happy, joyful, elated. Your tenacity is worthy of encouragement, but effort is not a synonym for accomplishment. 
orthodox- [awr-thuh-doks]-adj.- of, pertaining to, or conforming to the approved form of any doctrine, philosophy, ideology, etc. More orthodox measures aimed at limiting the franc's rise have proved ineffective. 
aristocracy- [ar-uh-stok-ruh-see]-noun- a class of persons holding exceptional rank and privileges, especially the hereditary nobility. These policies are something out of an aristocracy, not our democracy. 
Calypso- [kuh-lip-soh]-noun- Classical Mythology- a sea nymph who detained Odysseus on the island of Ogygia for seven years. Calypso is generally said to be the daughter of the Titan Atlas. 
patriarch- [pey-tree-ahrk]-noun- the male head of a family or tribal line. She wrote two stories in which a strong-willed patriarch plays matchmaker.
hierarchy- [hahy-uh-rahr-kee, hahy-rahr-]-noun- any system of persons or things ranked one above another. What is missing here is social science research on the hierarchy of the values. 
character- [kar-ik-ter]- the aggregate of features and traits that form the individual nature of some person or thing. It helps even more that she has an honest character with a gift for words. 
isobar- [ahy-suh-bahr]-noun- Physics, Chemistry - one of two or more atoms having equal atomic weights but different atomic numbers. Special flag for estimated radius of outermost closed isobar. asterisk- [as-tuh-risk]-noun- a small starlike symbol (*), used in writing and printing as a reference mark or to indicate omission, doubtful matter, etc. The sentence marked with an asterisk has been changed. 
eclectic- [ih-klek-tik]-adj.- not following any one system, as of philosophy, medicine, etc., but selecting and using what are considered the best elements of all systems. Their house is as comfortably and colorfully eclectic as they can make it.
melancholy- [mel-uh n-kol-ee]-noun- a gloomy state of mind, especially when habitual or prolonged; depression. His romances were brilliant and powerful, but his own life seemed muted and melancholy. 
stoic- [stoh-ik]-adj.- of or pertaining to the school of philosophy founded by Zeno, who taught that people should be free from passion, unmoved by joy or grief, and submit without complaint to unavoidable necessity. A principle of stoic philosophy is that the universe is a cosmos. 
chronology- [kruh-nol-uh-jee]-noun- the sequential order in which past events occur. The book also offers the first accurate and in-depth chronology of a turbulent journey from criminal to icon. 
eulogy- [yoo-luh-jee]-noun- a speech or writing in praise of a person or thing, especially a set oration in honor of a deceased person. Tara preferred the eloquence of eulogy to the deadline of obituary. 
didactic- [dahy-dak-tik]-adj.- intended for instruction; instructive. He combines humor and social commentary and does it without being didactic. 
cosmetic- [koz-met-ik]-noun- a powder, lotion, lipstick, rouge, or other preparation for beautifying the face, skin, hair, nails, etc. Hair tonics, perfumes, toilet waters and other cosmetic products were similarly exempt. 
Spartan- [spahr-tn]-noun- suggestive of the ancient Spartans; sternly disciplined and rigorously simple, frugal, or austere. The Spartans were highly disciplined warriors.
geothermal- [jee-oh-thur-muh l]-adj.- of or pertaining to the internal heat of the earth. Generate energy with solar panels, wind turbines or geothermal systems-or all three. 
cynical- [sin-i-kuh l]-adj.- bitterly or sneeringly distrustful, contemptuous, or pessimistic. Such a cynical and decadent philosophy could not go unchallenged.
homonym- [hom-uh-nim]-noun- Phonetics-a word pronounced the same as another but differing in meaning, whether spelled the same way or not, as heir and air. Be careful to use the rite homonym, or rather the right homonym. 
cryptic- [krip-tik]-adj.- mysterious in meaning; puzzling; ambiguous. The songs are overstuffed with cryptic slang and complex stories.
hypothesis- [hahy-poth-uh-sis, hi-]-noun- a proposition, or set of propositions, set forth as an explanation for the occurrence of some specified group of phenomena, either asserted merely as a provisional conjecture to guide investigation (working hypothesis) or accepted as highly probable in the light of established facts. Students should also understand that a theory is broader than a hypothesis. 
academy- [uh-kad-uh-mee]-noun- a school or college for special instruction or training in a subject. A military committee was functioning in the military academy. 
pentathlon- [pen-tath-luh n, -lon]-noun- an athletic contest comprising five different track and field events and won by the contestant gaining the highest total score. She trained for months for the pentathlon.
diatribe- [dahy-uh-trahyb]-noun- a bitter, sharply abusive denunciation, attack, or criticism. The magazines and newspapers repeated diatribes against the senator.
antibiotic- [an-ti-bahy-ot-ik, -bee-, an-tee-, -tahy-]-noun- any of a large group of chemical substances, as penicillin or streptomycin, produced by various microorganisms and fungi, having the capacity in dilute solutions to inhibit the growth of or to destroy bacteria and other microorganisms, used chiefly in the treatment of infectious diseases. Antibiotic treatment is best reserved for illnesses in which it is likely to be effective. 
etymology- [et-uh-mol-uh-jee]-noun- a chronological account of the birth and development of a particular word or element of a word, often delineating its spread from one language to another and its evolving changes in form and meaning. The etymology of the name is not known, it is probably not Greek. 
hydraulic- [hahy-draw-lik, -drol-ik]-adj.- operated by the pressure created by forcing water, oil, or another liquid through a comparatively narrow pipe or orifice. Using hydraulic jacks, the entire building can be raised. 
trauma- [trou-muh, traw-]-Pathology- a body wound or shock produced by sudden physical injury, as from violence or accident. The cause has not yet been determined but preliminary laboratory tests revealed acute physical trauma. 
hygiene- [hahy-jeen]-noun- a condition or practice conducive to the preservation of health, as cleanliness. The gene can spread hand-to-mouth, which makes good hygiene very important. 
semantics- [si-man-tiks]-noun- the meaning, or an interpretation of the meaning, of a word, sign, sentence, etc. Let's not argue about semantics about the probe's journey. 
thesaurus- [thi-sawr-uh s]-noun- a dictionary of synonyms and antonyms. In a thesaurus, the words themselves are the content. 
phenomenon- [fi-nom-uh-non, -nuh n]- a fact, occurrence, or circumstance observed or observable. Most astronomers doubt the pulsars are more than a natural phenomenon.
cosmos- [koz-muhs, -mohs]-noun- the world or universe regarded as an orderly, harmonious system. He was blinded by the sheer glory of the new cosmos that was unveiled by science during the first two decades of his life. 
protagonist- [proh-tag-uh-nist]-noun- the leading character, hero, or heroine of a drama or other literary work. Nearly every story's protagonist suffers from something of a protective shield cast by the writer.
acronym- [ak-ruh-nim]-noun- a word formed from the initial letters or groups of letters of words in a set phrase or series of words and pronounced as a separate word, as Wac from Women's Army Corps. There is always some new acronym in the technology industry. 
paradox- [par-uh-doks]-noun- a statement or proposition that seems self-contradictory or absurd but in reality expresses a possible truth. The most troublesome paradox, and the most difficult to change, is that of education itself. 
synchronous- [sing-kruh-nuh s]-adj.- occurring at the same time; coinciding in time; contemporaneous; simultaneous. Normally, brain activity is synchronous across this circuit's three regions.
misanthropy- [mis-an-thruh-pee, miz-]-noun- hatred, dislike, or distrust of humankind. In a world dominated by extrovert behaviour, introversion is often mistaken for misanthropy.
sarcasm- [sahr-kaz-uh m]-noun- harsh or bitter derision or irony. Now and then there was a touch of sarcasm in his voice. 
ephemeral- [ih-fem-er-uhl]-adj.- lasting a very short time; short-lived; transitory. I'm happy that the movie can give some pleasure to people, but acting is ephemeral. 
polygon- [pol-ee-gon]-noun-a figure, especially a closed plane figure, having three or more, usually straight, sides. In the center we have a heptagon, that is to say a seven sided polygon. 
nemesis- [nem-uh-sis]-noun- an opponent or rival whom a person cannot best or overcome. When someone is your nemesis they are hard to conquer.
syntax- [sin-taks]-noun-Linguistics- the study of the rules for the formation of grammatical sentences in a language. Consider your answers carefully, and write in complete sentences with proper grammar, syntax and punctuation. 
eureka- [yoo-ree-kuh, yuh-]-interjection- used as an exclamation of triumph at a discovery. Archimedes, an ancient Greek engineer, is reputed to have run naked through the streets shouting, "Eureka!"
topography- [tuh-pog-ruh-fee]-noun- the detailed mapping or charting of the features of a relatively small area, district, or locality. The local topography changes according to the seasons.
panic- [pan-ik]-noun- a sudden overwhelming fear, with or without cause, that produces hysterical or irrational behavior, and that often spreads quickly through a group of persons or animals. The group was so lost it couldn't figure out how to backtrack and started to panic. 
apostrophe- [uh-pos-truh-fee]-noun- the sign ('), as used: to indicate the omission of one or more letters in a word, whether unpronounced, as in o'er for over, or pronounced, as in gov't for government; to indicate the possessive case, as in man's; or to indicate plurals of abbreviations and symbols, as in several M.D.'s, 3's. That's is a contraction for that is and thus requires an apostrophe. 
geranium- [ji-rey-nee-uh m]-noun- any of numerous plants of the genus Geranium, which comprises the crane's-bills. Many people bring their geraniums indoors for the winter.
metaphor- [met-uh-fawr, -fer]-noun- a figure of speech in which a term or phrase is applied to something to which it is not literally applicable in order to suggest a resemblance, as in “A mighty fortress is our God.” The ecosystem metaphor has become very popular, almost too popular. 
spherical- [sfer-i-kuh l, sfeer-]-adj.- having the form of a sphere; globular. The nucleus is spherical and situated about the center of the cell. 
xylophone- [zahy-luh-fohn]-noun- a musical instrument consisting of a graduated series of wooden bars, usually sounded by striking with small wooden hammers. Instruments on the table include a xylophone, cymbal, drum and two drumsticks.
dynamic- [dahy-nam-ik]-adj.- pertaining to or characterized by energy or effective action; vigorously active or forceful; energetic: the dynamic president of the firm. The result was a dynamic work ethic. myriad- [mir-ee-uh d]-adj.- of an indefinitely great number; innumerable. The myriad stars of a summer night are beautiful to behold. 
epiphany- [ih-pif-uh-nee]-noun-a sudden, intuitive perception of or insight into the reality or essential meaning of something, usually initiated by some simple, homely, or commonplace occurrence or experience. An epiphany is a sudden realization of the essence or meaning of something. 
apathy- [ap-uh-thee]-noun- absence or suppression of passion, emotion, or excitement. Try not to allow their apathy to affect your enthusiasm. 
synergy- [sin-er-jee]-noun- the interaction of elements that when combined produce a total effect that is greater than the sum of the individual elements, contributions, etc. Negative synergy occurs when the sum of effects of the mixture is less than that of the individual components of the mix. 
amnesia- [am-nee-zhuh]-noun- loss of a large block of interrelated memories; complete or partial loss of memory caused by brain injury, shock, etc. Another had amnesia for several weeks after the quake. 
philanthropy- [fi-lan-thruh-pee]-noun- altruistic concern for human welfare and advancement, usually manifested by donations of money, property, or work to needy persons, by endowment of institutions of learning and hospitals, and by generosity to other socially useful purposes. Volunteering and philanthropy are strongly emphasized in our household. 
democracy- [dih-mok-ruh-see]-noun- government by the people; a form of government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their elected agents under a free electoral system. In a democracy, nothing is supposed to matter more than the will of the people. 
strategy- [strat-i-jee]-noun- a plan, method, or series of maneuvers or stratagems for obtaining a specific goal or result. The best strategy is to shake snow off or knock it off with a broom to keep it from building up. 
diagnosis- [dahy-uh g-noh-sis]-noun-Medical- the process of determining by examination the nature and circumstances of a diseased condition. He was 77 and had been in poor health since he received a diagnosis of brain cancer last year. 
topical- [top-i-kuh l]-adj.- Medicine/Medical-of, pertaining to, or applied externally to a particular part of the body; local. Most healthy patients receive either a local injection or topical anesthetic. 
matriarch- [mey-tree-ahrk]-noun- the female head of a family or tribal line. She was the family's beautiful matriarch. 
endemic- [en-dem-ik]-noun- natural to or characteristic of a specific people or place; native; indigenous. Corruption has become so endemic that it is perceived as normal. 
analysis- [uh-nal-uh-sis]-noun- this process as a method of studying the nature of something or of determining its essential features and their relations. They had to conduct market research and competitive analysis. 
rhetoric- [ret-er-ik]-noun- the undue use of exaggeration or display; bombast. He has all the proper sentiments, and his rhetoric and rimes are easy work for him. 
eponym- [ep-uh-nim]-noun- a person, real or imaginary, from whom something, as a tribe, nation, or place, takes or is said to take its name. Worse, Benedict Arnold's name became an eponym for someone who betrays his own country by helping the enemy. 
agnostic- [ag-nos-tik]-noun- a person who holds that the existence of the ultimate cause, as God, and the essential nature of things are unknown and unknowable, or that human knowledge is limited to experience. The term 'agnostic' was created by T. H. Huxley
dogma- [dawg-muh, dog-]-noun- an official system of principles or tenets concerning faith, morals, behavior, etc., as of a church. It became nutritional dogma in some circles that sugar was healthy, and high-fructose corn syrup was not. 
idiom- [id-ee-uh m]-noun- an expression whose meaning is not predictable from the usual meanings of its constituent elements, as kick the bucket or hang one's head. Anyone ever thought of an idiom: give an inch, take a mile. 
thermal- [thur-muhl]-noun-of, pertaining to, or caused by heat or temperature. Solar thermal systems use heat energy from the sun to warm water.
Olympian- [uh-lim-pee-uh n, oh-lim-]-noun- pertaining to Mount Olympus or dwelling thereon, as the gods of classical Greece. Mighty Zeus is the leader of all the Olympian gods.
dyslexia- [dis-lek-see-uh]-noun-Pathology- any of various reading disorders associated with impairment of the ability to interpret spatial relationships or to integrate auditory and visual information. Dyslexia manifests itself as a difficulty with a highly unnatural activity: reading. 
allegory- [al-uh-gawr-ee, -gohr-ee]-noun- a representation of an abstract or spiritual meaning through concrete or material forms; figurative treatment of one subject under the guise of another. One part intriguing allegory to nine parts gore, zombie films are hard to love. 
pragmatic- [prag-mat-ik]-adj.- of or pertaining to a practical point of view or practical considerations. He's less a social critic than a pragmatic businessman. 
adamant- [ad-uh-muhnt, -mant]-adj.- utterly unyielding in attitude or opinion in spite of all appeals, urgings, etc. The officer was adamant that the light was red before I went through it. 
protocol- [proh-tuh-kawl, -kol, -kohl]-noun- the customs and regulations dealing with diplomatic formality, precedence, and etiquette. When the late arrival entered, the protocol was to take one's seat quietly and without complaint. 
tragic- [traj-ik]-adj.- characteristic or suggestive of tragedy. Tragic events sometimes bring out the best in people. 
hydrology- [hahy-drol-uh-jee]-noun- the science dealing with the occurrence, circulation, distribution, and properties of the waters of the earth and its atmosphere. Hydrology is the aspect of geology which studies water. 
polymer- [pol-uh-mer]-noun-Chemistry- a compound of high molecular weight derived either by the addition of many smaller molecules, as polyethylene, or by the condensation of many smaller molecules with the elimination of water, alcohol, or the like, as nylon. The rink, made of recyclable polymer, requires no refrigeration or electricity. 
notochord- [noh-tuh-kawrd]-noun- Embryology- a rodlike cord of cells that forms the chief axial supporting structure of the body of the lower chordates, as amphioxus and the cyclostomes, and of the embryos of the vertebrates. A notochord is a flexible and usually rod-shaped body found in embryos of all chordates. 
biblical- [bib-li-kuh l]-adj.- of or in the Bible; in accord with the Bible. A wiki list of biblical names says Zur means stone rock that besieges.
ergonomic- [ur-guh-nom-iks]-noun- designed to minimize physical effort and discomfort, and hence maximize efficiency. Snowboarders do hold one, if small, ergonomic advantage over skiers.
mathematics- [math-uh-mat-iks]-noun- the systematic treatment of magnitude, relationships between figures and forms, and relations between quantities expressed symbolically. Mathematics is a language translatable into any other. 
tachometer- [ta-kom-i-ter, tuh-]-noun- any of various instruments for measuring or indicating velocity or speed, as of a machine, a river, or the blood. By using a tachometer to measure actual motor speed, it is possible to calculate motor loads. 
protein- [proh-teen, -tee-in]-noun- the plant or animal tissue rich in such molecules, considered as a food source supplying essential amino acids to the body. Calculate how much protein you should be eating every day and then start tracking it.
rhinoceros- [rahy-nos-er-uh s]-noun- any of several large, thick-skinned, perissodactyl mammals of the family Rhinocerotidae, of Africa and India, having one or two upright horns on the snout. It is closely related to the horse and is also kin to the rhinoceros. 
hyphen- [hahy-fuh n]-noun- a short line (-) used to connect the parts of a compound word or the parts of a word divided for any purpose. Avoid dividing words with a hyphen at the end of a line, especially in unjustified text. 
autopsy- [aw-top-see, aw-tuhp-]-noun- inspection and dissection of a body after death, as for determination of the cause of death; postmortem examination. The final autopsy report is expected to be made public today, when testimony resumes. 
pyre- [pahyuh r]-noun- a pile or heap of wood or other combustible material. Behind the village they erect a pyre, on which they burn the straw figure, reviling and scoffing at it.
herpetology- [hur-pi-tol-uh-jee]-noun-the branch of zoology dealing with reptiles and amphibians. Making great leaps forward in herpetology, accounting for detectability in field studies. 
angelic- [an-jel-ik]-adj.- of or belonging to angels; like or befitting an angel, especially in virtue, beauty, etc. Every day, you can be touched by someone angelic.
tritium- [trit-ee-uhm, trish-, trish-uhm]-noun-Chemistry- an isotope of hydrogen having an atomic weight of three. When a warhead detonates, it squeezes the deuterium and tritium until they fuse together. 
androcentric- [an-druh-sen-trik]-adj.- centered on, emphasizing, or dominated by males or masculine interests. Androcentrism is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing male human beings or the masculine point of view at the center of one's view of the world and its culture and history.
demotic- [dih-mot-ik]-adj.- of or pertaining to the ordinary, everyday, current form of a language; vernacular. He is a poet with a keen ear for demotic rhythms. 
geode- [jee-ohd]-noun- a hollow concretionary or nodular stone often lined with crystals. A geode is a rock with crystal inside and a lumpy exterior.
hedonism- [heed-n-iz-uh m]-noun- the doctrine that pleasure or happiness is the highest good. Rebelling against her upbringing, Karen spends the summer in a haze of hedonism. 
periscope- [per-uh-skohp]-noun- an optical instrument for viewing objects that are above the level of direct sight or in an otherwise obstructed field of vision, consisting essentially of a tube with an arrangement of prisms or mirrors and, usually, lenses: used especially in submarines. The van is equipped with a video camera and a periscope. 
geoponics- [jee-uh-pon-iks]-noun- the art or science of agriculture; gardening or farming in soil. The term geoponics in farming practice, refer to growing plants in normal soil. 
asthmogenic-[az-mo-jen-ik]-adj.-causing asthmatic conditions. The thick smog was asthmogenic. monotonous- [muh-not-n-uhs]-adj.- lacking in variety; tediously unvarying. Everyone has had the mindless slipup during a monotonous task. 
amphibious- [am-fib-ee-uh s]-adj.- living or able to live both on land and in water; belonging to both land and water. Mosses are the amphibious descendants of aquatic algae. 
symbiosis- [sim-bee-oh-sis, -bahy-]-noun-Biology- the living together of two dissimilar organisms, as in mutualism, commensalism, amensalism, or parasitism. From slimy to friendly, these invaders live in symbiosis with plants and us.
macron- [mey-kron, mak-ron]-noun- a horizontal line used as a diacritic over a vowel to indicate that it has a long sound or other specified pronunciation, as (ā) in fate (fāt). Despite it's "exotic" status, the macron is actually used in quite a few cases, including Latin long marks.
periphery- [puh-rif-uh-ree]-noun- the external boundary of any surface or area. It's on the ramp's periphery that the miners blasted open veins of gold.

Challenge Words 
dichotomy- [dahy-kot-uh-mee]-noun- division into two parts, kinds, etc.; subdivision into halves or pairs. The dichotomy between personal liberties and property rights is a false one. 
misogynist- [mi-soj-uh-nist, mahy‐]-noun- a person who hates, dislikes, mistrusts, or mistreats women. A misogynist is defined as a misanthrope who dislikes women in particular. 
hypocrisy- [hi-pok-ruh-see]-noun- a pretense of having a virtuous character, moral or religious beliefs or principles, etc., that one does not really possess. Sincerity is described in the dictionary as the quality of being without deceit, pretense or hypocrisy.
diphthong- [dif-thawng, -thong, dip-]-noun- Phonetics . an unsegmentable, gliding speech sound varying continuously in phonetic quality but held to be a single sound or phoneme and identified by its apparent beginning and ending sound, as the oi- sound of toy or boil. A diphthong is a phonetic term for a vowel with two sounds. 
mnemonic- [ni-mon-ik]-adj.- assisting or intended to assist the memory. He was able to beef up his memory by learning mnemonic techniques. 
anomaly- [uh-nom-uh-lee]-noun- a deviation from the common rule, type, arrangement, or form. Synonyms: abnormality, exception, peculiarity. We take this anomaly for granted and ignore the real significance of it. 
zephyr- [zef-er]-noun- a gentle, mild breeze. A zephyr is a breeze from the west, a light breeze.
hippopotamus- [hip-uh-pot-uh-muhs]-noun- a large herbivorous mammal, Hippopotamus amphibius, having a thick hairless body, short legs, and a large head and muzzle, found in and near the rivers, lakes, etc., of Africa, and able to remain under water for a considerable time. Ali at one juncture rides to fame on the back of a hippopotamus. 
euphemism- [yoo-fuh-miz-uh m]-noun- the substitution of a mild, indirect, or vague expression for one thought to be offensive, harsh, or blunt. At first I thought this was a clever euphemism for declaring bankruptcy.
anachronism- [uh-nak-ruh-niz-uh m]-noun- something or someone that is not in its correct historical or chronological time, especially a thing or person that belongs to an earlier time. This is not an anachronism , this is a poet.
metamorphosis- [met-uh-mawr-fuh-sis]-noun- Biology-a profound change in form from one stage to the next in the life history of an organism, as from the caterpillar to the pupa and from the pupa to the adult butterfly. In earliest human life, some cells undergo a dramatic metamorphosis. 
hyperbole-[hahy-pur-buh-lee]-noun-Rhetoric-an extravagant statement or figure of speech not intended to be taken literally, as “to wait an eternity.” Excessive use of hyperbole tends to evoke doubt, not agreement.
arachnid- [uh-rak-nid]-noun- any wingless, carnivorous arthropod of the class Arachnida, including spiders, scorpions, mites, ticks, and daddy-longlegs, having a body divided into two parts, the cephalothorax and the abdomen, and having eight appendages and no antennae.  A spider is part of the arachnid family.
paradigm- [par-uh-dahym, -dim]-noun-Grammar- a set of forms all of which contain a particular element, especially the set of all inflected forms based on a single stem or theme; a display in fixed arrangement of such a set, as boy, boy's, boys, boys'. Maybe if you got out of the paradigm you're stuck in you'd see things for how they really are. 
Eocene- [ee-uh-seen]-noun-Geological Time- noting or pertaining to an epoch of the Tertiary Period, occurring from 55 to 40 million years ago and characterized by the advent of the modern mammalian orders. The Tertiary period, which lasted for 20, 000, 000 years, was the time that hooved mammals appeared. 
gynarchy- [jin-er-kee, gahy-ner-, jahy-ner-]-noun- government by women. Our government is the opposite of a gynarchy, even though there are some women serving in it. 
pneumatic- [noo-mat-ik, nyoo-]-adj.- of or pertaining to air, gases, or wind. Miners use pneumatic drills now with their hammers and chisels. 
Hemerocallis- [hem-er-uh-kal-is]-noun- the genus comprising the day lilies. Daylily is the general nonscientific name of a species, hybrid or cultivar of the genus Hemerocallis. 
cynosure- [sahy-nuh-shoo r, sin-uh-]- something that strongly attracts attention by its brilliance, interest, etc. But her cynosure as an artist is a disciplined evacuation of psychic distance between her subjects and the viewer. 
philhellenism- [fil-hel-uh-niz-uh m]-noun-pertaining to the culture of Greece. In the story he believed in philhellenism.
euthanasia- [yoo-thuh-ney-zhuh, -zhee-uh, -zee-uh]-noun- the act of putting to death painlessly or allowing to die, as by withholding extreme medical measures, a person or animal suffering from an incurable, especially a painful, disease or condition. Veterinarians could offer no treatments and recommended euthanasia.
philately- [fi-lat-l-ee]-noun- the collecting of stamps and other postal matter as a hobby or an investment. Philately is the collection and study of postage stamps, postmarks, stamped envelopes and related materials. 
cacophony- [kuh-kof-uh-nee]-noun- a discordant and meaningless mixture of sounds. The cacophony produced by city traffic at midday is very loud.

Sunday, November 3, 2013

4th-5th Grade Spelling List (12- Spanish)

burrito- [buh-ree-toh]-noun-Mexican Cookery- a tortilla folded over a filling, as of ground beef, grated cheese, or refried beans. Without the hot sauce, every taco and burrito is quite dull and bland. aficionado-[uh-fish-yuh-nah-doh]-noun- an ardent devotee; fan, enthusiast. For the art aficionado, choose from wildlife-themed prints. 
Tucson- [too-son, too-son]-noun- a city in S Arizona: health resort. Tucson is a city in and the county seat of Pima County, Arizona, United States, and home to the University of Arizona. 
embargo- [em-bahr-goh]-noun- an order of a government prohibiting the movement of merchant ships into or out of its ports. In 1995, Greece lifted a 20-month trade embargo and the two countries agreed to normalize relations. 
chimichanga- [chim-ee-chahng-guh]-noun-Mexican Cookery- a crisp, often deep-fried tortilla containing a spicy filling of pork, chicken, etc., usually served as an appetizer with sour cream, green chili sauce, melted cheese, etc. The specials include chimichanga fajitas, chicken mole and fried fish. 
gazpacho- [guh-spah-choh]-noun-Spanish Cookery- a soup made of chopped tomatoes, cucumbers, onions, garlic, oil, and vinegar, and served cold. The dinner menu offers appetizers such as lobster bisque and tomato gazpacho. 
mariachi- [mahr-ee-ah-chee]-noun-adj.- pertaining to traditional Mexican dance music, usually played by a small band of strolling musicians dressed in native costumes. It is tradition for Mariachis to sing at events and even in dining restaurants. 
sombrero- [som-brair-oh]-noun- a broad-brimmed hat of straw or felt, usually tall-crowned, worn especially in Spain, Mexico, and the southwestern U.S. He is on a horse, wears a cream-colored sombrero and carries his guns openly at the hip instead of in a shoulder holster.
alligator- [al-i-gey-ter]-noun- either of two broad-snouted crocodilians of the genus Alligator, of the southeastern U.S. and eastern China. Species rarely change much if they are living successfully in a stable environment: witness the alligator. 
canasta- [kuh-nas-tuh]-noun-a variety of rummy in which the main object is to meld sets of seven or more cards. Skilled players will play a wild card on an existing canasta for the win. 
bonanza- [buh-nan-zuh, boh-]-noun- a source of great and sudden wealth or luck; a spectacular windfall. The state's oil boom is no guaranteed bonanza for higher education. 
chinchilla- [chin-chil-uh]-noun- a small, South American rodent, Chinchilla laniger, raised for its soft, silvery gray fur: now rare in the wild. Equally unaware are the chinchilla and the tiny, mouse-like marsupial nibbling seeds nearby. 
machismo- [mah-cheez-moh]-noun- a strong or exaggerated sense of manliness; an assumptive attitude that virility, courage, strength, and entitlement to dominate are attributes or concomitants of masculinity.
Because such a country is certain to value machismo over the nerdy qualities that actually win wars. enchilada- [en-chuh-lah-duh, -lad-uh]-noun-Mexican Cookery- a tortilla rolled and filled with a seasoned mixture, usually containing meat, and covered with a sauce flavored with chili. Her winning recipes were enchilada pie and pumpkin pie cake. 
pueblo- [pweb-loh]-noun- a communal structure for multiple dwelling and defensive purposes of certain agricultural Indians of the southwestern U.S.: built of adobe or stone, typically many-storied and terraced, the structures were often placed against cliff walls, with entry through the roof by ladder. The attackers probably struck the sleeping pueblo at dawn. 
hacienda- [hah-see-en-duh]-noun- a large landed estate, especially one used for farming or ranching. The on-premises greenhouse grows organic vegetables for the hacienda. 
fandango- [fan-dang-goh]-noun- a lively Spanish or Spanish-American dance in triple time, performed by a man and woman playing castanets. In later years it featured daring feats of horsemanship, riata throwing and bull fights, with a fandango at the end. 
quesadilla- [key-suh-dee-uh]-noun-Mexican Cookery- a tortilla folded over a filling of shredded cheese,onions, and chilies and broiled or fried. Use a knife or pizza wheel to cut the quesadilla into wedges for serving.
flotilla- [floh-til-uh]-noun- a group of small naval vessels, especially a naval unit containing two or more squadrons. Many boats sport creative decorations in a flotilla that lasts for hours. 
tornado- [tawr-ney-doh]-noun- a localized, violently destructive windstorm occurring over land, especially in the Middle West, and characterized by a long, funnel-shaped cloud extending toward the ground and made visible by condensation and debris. New technology increases tornado warning times, experts say.
flamenco- [flah-meng-koh, fluh-]-noun- a style of dancing, characteristic of the Andalusian Gypsies, that is strongly rhythmic and involves vigorous actions, as clapping the hands and stamping the feet. They might skateboard on weekends or take flamenco lessons. 
vigilante [vij-uh-lan-tee]-noun- any person who takes the law into his or her own hands, as by avenging a crime. If you become militant or try to be a vigilante you are only going to cause problems. 
adios- [ad-ee-ohs, ah-dee-]-interfection- good-bye; farewell. Adiós means 'goodbye' in Spanish. 
cabana- [kuh-ban-uh, -ban-yuh, -bah-nuh, -bahn-yuh]-noun- a small cabin or tent-like structure for use as a bathhouse, especially on a beach or by a swimming pool. Relax in the private cabana or spend a few hours playing in the indoor wave pool.
gordita-[gor-deet-uh]-noun-a deep-fried pocket of cornmeal dough, often with a filling of meat and vegetables. Gorditas are baked in a dry comal and then fried in oil. 
peccadillo- [pek-uh-dil-oh]-noun- a very minor or slight sin or offense; a trifling fault. For a time, the peccadillo reportedly cut in half her asking price for ad work. 
filibuster- [fil-uh-buhs-ter]-noun-U.S. Politics- the use of irregular or obstructive tactics by a member of a legislative assembly to prevent the adoption of a measure generally favored or to force a decision against the will of the majority. The bill did not win enough votes to break a filibuster. 
tortilla- [tawr-tee-uh]-noun-Mexican Cookery- a thin, round, unleavened bread prepared from cornmeal or sometimes wheat flour, baked on a flat plate of iron, earthenware, or the like. Arrange crisp-fried corn tortilla rounds on a baking sheet.
vanilla- [vuh-nil-uh or, often, -nel-uh]-noun- any tropical, climbing orchid of the genus Vanilla, especially V. planifolia, bearing podlike fruit yielding an extract used in flavoring food, in perfumery, etc. Pour the nutmeg, vanilla extract, and sugar into the mixing bowl. 
cilantro- [si-lahn-troh, -lan-]-noun- a European umbelliferous plant, Coriandrum sativum, widely cultivated for its aromatic seeds and leaves, used in flavouring food, etc. Spoon the sauce over cooked chicken and garnish with cilantro.
fiesta- [fee-es-tuh]-noun- (in Spain and Latin America) a festive celebration of a religious holiday.
The three-day fiesta is a celebration dedicated to fond memories of the departed. 
anchovy- [an-choh-vee, -chuh-, an-choh-vee]-noun- any small, marine, herringlike fish of the family Engraulidae, especially Engraulis encrasicholus, found in the Mediterranean Sea, often preserved in oil and used in salads, spreads, etc.  Crisscross two anchovy fillets over the yolk of each egg. 
mesa- [mey-suh]-noun- a land formation, less extensive than a plateau, having steep walls and a relatively flat top and common in arid and semiarid parts of the southwestern U.S. and Mexico. As a result, the formations stay the same height as the original plateau or mesa. 
ramada- [ruh-mah-duh]-noun- an open shelter, often having a dome-shaped thatched roof, and installed especially on beaches and picnic grounds. Little's garden, features a ramada made of augers and bedsprings and a patio made from water meter lids. 
junco- [juhng-koh]-noun- any of several small North American finches of the genus Junco. The slate-colored junco is distinguished by the slaty-gray back, white bill, and white under-parts. 
cafeteria- [kaf-i-teer-ee-uh]-noun- a restaurant in which patrons wait on themselves, carrying their food to tables from counters where it is displayed and served. The camps are on college campuses, and so lunch is usually at the college cafeteria.
bongo- [bong-goh, bawng-]noun- a small bucket-shape drum, usually one of a pair, played by beating with the fingers. People sat on blankets playing the guitar or bongo drums or meditating. 
castanets- [kas-tuh-net]-noun- either of a pair of concave pieces of wood held in the palm of the hand and clicked together, usually to accompany dancing. Tambourines, guitars, gourd rattles and castanets lend to the excitement in the air. 
mantilla- [man-til-uh, -tee-uh]-noun- a woman's lace or silk scarf covering the shoulders and head, often worn over a comb in the hair, esp in Spain. Slide the decorative mantilla comb, called a peineta, as close to you head as possible. 
oregano- [uh-reg-uh-noh, aw-reg‐]-noun- an aromatic herb, Origanum vulgare, of the mint family, having leaves used as seasoning in cooking. Put oregano in the pizza sauce, never in the marinara.
lariat- [lar-ee-uh t]-noun- a long, noosed rope used to catch horses, cattle, or other livestock; lasso. Bill is an expert with a lariat, the twirling of which amazes the youthful ruler. 
chalupa- [chuh-loo-puh; Spanish chah-loo-pah]-noun- a fried tortilla spread with bean paste or ground cooked meat and topped with shredded cheese, lettuce, chopped tomato, and often hot sauce. A chalupa is a tostada platter in Mexican cuisine. 
buffalo- [buhf-uh-loh]-noun- any of several large wild oxen of the family Bovidae. Buffalo's enjoy grass and are referred as herbivorous grazers.
renegade- [ren-i-geyd]-noun- a person who deserts his or her cause or faith for another; apostate; traitor. Meanwhile, renegade militias have been brought back into the fold with promises of government cash. 
langosta- [lahng-gaws-tah; English lang-gos-tuh]-noun- spiny lobster. Langosta is a spiny lobster, found in the cays, that looks like a lobster, but without the claws. 
Alamo- [al-uh-moh, ah-luh-]-noun- a Franciscan mission in San Antonio, Texas, besieged by Mexicans on February 23, 1836, during the Texan war for independence and taken on March 6, 1836, with its entire garrison killed. Rallying under the cry “ Remember the Alamo!”, Texans later forced the Mexicans to recognize the independent republic of Texas. 
barrio- [bahr-ee-oh, bar-]-noun- (in Spain and countries colonized by Spain) one of the divisions into which a town or city, together with the contiguous rural territory, is divided. The article mentions a supposed miracle which took place in a bathroom in the barrio.
cedilla- [si-dil-uh]-noun- a mark (¸) placed under a consonant letter, as under c in French, in Portuguese, and formerly in Spanish, to indicate that it is pronounced (s), under c and s in Turkish to indicate that they are pronounced, respectively, (ch) and (sh), or under t and s in Romanian to indicate that they are pronounced, respectively, (ts) and (sh). A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritical mark to modify their pronunciation. 
Argentine- [ahr-juh n-tin, -tahyn]-noun- any of various silvery marine fishes, especially those of the genus Argentina. Argentines are silvery fishes about 18 inches long; they live about 480-1,800 feet below the surface and are sometimes caught by fishermen. 
bolivar- [bol-uh-ver, buh-lee-vahr]-noun- a coin and monetary unit of Venezuela, equal to 100 centimos. The bolivar was introduced in 2008 in an attempt to curb high inflation and simplify financial transactions. 
Amarillo- [am-uh-ril-oh]-noun- a city in NW Texas. Amarillo is located in the panhandle of Texas. 
cordovan- [kawr-duh-vuh n]-noun- a soft, smooth leather originally made at Córdoba of goatskin but later made also of split horsehide, pigskin, etc. Cordovan is often used to describe the color of leather clothing or leather goods. 
desperado- [des-puh-rah-doh, -rey-]-noun- a bold, reckless criminal or outlaw, especially in the early days of the American West. When he and his band caught up with the outlaw group, they slayed the desperado after a ferocious gunfight. 
empanada- [em-puh-nah-duh]-noun-Latin-American Cookery- a turnover or mold of pastry filled with chopped or ground meat, vegetables, fruit, etc., and usually baked or fried. Lap the top piece of plastic wrap over the dough and lift the empanada onto the baking sheet.
tomatillo- [toh-muh-tee-oh, -teel-yoh]-noun- Also called: green tomato a solanaceous plant, Physalis ixocarpa , of South America, the greenish-purple fruit of this plant that is a staple in Mexican cuisine. Wash the tomatillos in cool, running water to remove the stickiness from the skin. 
diablo- [dee-ah-bloh, dyah-]-noun- Spanish for “devil.” Diablo is a Spanish term that has been passed through many different cultures and is commonly known. 
pochismo- [paw-chee-zmaw; English poh-cheez-moh]-noun- an English word or expression borrowed into Spanish; a Spanish word showing U.S. influence. The bolero and the danzon were also part of the pochismo culture. 
sierra- [see-er-uh]-noun- a chain of hills or mountains, the peaks of which suggest the teeth of a saw. A siera is a range of mountains that is typically rugged by description and nature.
olio- [oh-lee-oh]-noun- a dish of many ingredients. Olio is a highly spiced stew of meat and vegetables. 
bolero- [buh-lair-oh, boh-]-noun- a jacket ending above or at the waistline, with or without collar, lapel, and sleeves, worn open in front. A bolero is a very short jacket that is worn open in the front. junta- [hoo n-tuh, juhn‐, huhn‐]-noun- a small group ruling a country, especially immediately after a coup d'état and before a legally constituted government has been instituted. Not only are there scant signs of change from the repressive ruling junta. 
duenna- [doo-en-uh, dyoo-]-noun- (in Spain and Portugal) an older woman serving as escort or chaperon of a young lady. The presence of a duenna was a guarantee of the virtue of the young woman in question.

Challenge Words 
sassafras- [sas-uh-fras]-noun- an American tree, Sassafras albidum, of the laurel family, having egg-shaped leaves and long clusters of greenish-yellow flowers. Sassafras is a tree whose bark and leaves give off a very pleasant aroma.
punctilio- [puhngk-til-ee-oh]-noun- a fine point, particular, or detail, as of conduct, ceremony, or procedure. They really seem to show a readiness to stand on punctilio and ceremony. 
sarsaparilla- [sas-puh-ril-uh, sahr-suh-puh-, sahr-spuh-]-noun- any of various climbing or trailing tropical American plants belonging to the genus Smilax, of the lily family, having alternate leaves, umbels of flowers, and a root that has been used in the treatment of psoriasis; a soft drink flavored with an extract of this root, as root beer. Sarsaparilla is a perennial vine with prickly stems native to tropical America and the West Indies. 
comandante- [kom-uh n-dan-tee]-noun- commandant. The comandante has always had a short attention span, and is now battling cancer. 
embarcadero- [em-bahr-kuh-dair-oh]-noun- a pier, wharf, or landing place. A mishmash of retail stores, eateries, and offices: that's how I'd describe the Embarcadero Center. 
rejoneador-[ray-hon-ee-uh-door]-noun- the name given to a bullfighter who fights the bull on horseback. The rejoneador receives the bull after it enters the ring. 
novillero- [noh-vee-air-oh, -vuh l-yair-oh]-noun- a young bullfighter who has not yet been named a matador. A novillero is required to fight bulls less than four years of age. 
picaresque- [pik-uh-resk]-adj.- pertaining to, characteristic of, or characterized by a form of prose fiction, originally developed in Spain, in which the adventures of an engagingly roguish hero are described in a series of usually humorous or satiric episodes that often depict, in realistic detail, the everyday life of the common people. Not many picaresque heroes find things so straightforward. 
conquistador- [kon-kwis-tuh-dawr, kong-]-noun- one of the Spanish conquerors of Mexico and Peru in the 16th century. He also had conquistador blood, and could perform wild tricks on unmanageable horses. 
rasgado-[rahs-gah-doh] -noun- the arpeggio effect produced by sweeping the strings with the thumb in guitar playing. The guitarist used a rasgado effect. 
vaquero- [vah-kair-oh]-noun- a cowboy or herdsman. The vaqueros were the first American farm hands also known as cowboys. 
caballero- [kab-uh l-yair-oh, kab-uh-lair-oh]-noun- a Spanish gentleman. Caballero is Spanish for a gentleman or a man who is good with the horses.

4th-5th Grade Spelling List (11- Italian)

staccato- [stuh-kah-toh]-adj.- characterized by performance in which the notes are abruptly disconnected.  Student is also able to respond to legato and staccato markings. 
canaille- [kuh-neyl]-noun- riffraff; rabble. The Nice seaport used to be full of canaille. 
caesar- [see-zer]-noun - a title of the Roman emperors from Augustus to Hadrian, and later of the heirs presumptive.  Caesar was an emperor and military leader.
Puccini- [poo-chee-nee]-noun- 1858–1924, Italian operatic composer, Giacomo.   Puccini composed the following operas: La bohème, Tosca, Madama Butterfly and Turandot. 
a cappella- [ah-kuh-pel-uh; Italian ah-kahp-pel-lah]-adverb-Music- without instrumental accompaniment.  Singing a cappella is done outside of church now too. 
ballot- [bal-uh t]-noun- a slip or sheet of paper, cardboard, or the like, on which a voter marks his or her vote.  The popular politician had been nominated on the ninth ballot as his party's candidate.
confetti- [kuhn-fet-ee]-plural noun- small bits of paper, usually colored, thrown or dropped from a height to enhance the gaiety of a festive event, as a parade, wedding, or New Year's Eve party.  The champagne's been guzzled, the confetti swept, and the golden statuettes taken home to adorn the winners' mantelpieces.
semolina- [sem-uh-lee-nuh]-noun- a granular, milled product of durum wheat, consisting almost entirely of endosperm particles, used chiefly in the making of pasta.  Durum wheat or macaroni wheat is also widely used for preparing pasta and semolina. 
influenza- [in-floo-en-zuh]-noun- Pathology- an acute, commonly epidemic disease, occurring in several forms, caused by numerous rapidly mutating viral strains and characterized by respiratory symptoms and general prostration.   The influenza vaccine is quickly losing its reputation as an effective way to ward off the virus in the elderly. 
cavalry- [kav-uh l-ree]-noun-Military- the part of a military force composed of troops that serve on horseback.  At an early hour this morning the cavalry corps again moved forward. 
piazza- [pee-az-uh, -ah-zuh; pee-at-suh, -aht-]-noun- an open square or public place in a city or town, especially in Italy.  The remains of the monumental complex are beneath piazza duomo. 
cadenza- [kuh-den-zuh]-noun-Music- an elaborate flourish or showy solo passage, sometimes improvised, introduced near the end of an aria or a movement of a concerto. Then comes a transitional clarinet cadenza that evolves into scurrying riffs and runs.
pistachio- [pi-stash-ee-oh, -stah-shee-oh]-noun- the nut of a Eurasian tree, Pistacia vera, of the cashew family, containing an edible, greenish kernel.  Her lush candies come in several flavors: milk chocolate, white chocolate, coconut and pistachio. 
spinet- [spin-it]-noun- a small upright piano.  She dreamed of trading her spinet for a baby grand piano. 
cantata- [kuh n-tah-tuh]-noun- a choral composition, either sacred and resembling a short oratorio or secular, as a lyric drama set to music but not to be acted.  One library will commission a cantata using text from the novel as lyrics. 
incognito-[in-kog-nee-toh, in-kog-ni-toh]-adverb- with the real identity concealed.   He showed up at the games incognito and stayed in makeshift barracks.
vendetta- [ven-det-uh]-noun- a private feud in which the members of the family of a murdered person seek to avenge the murder by killing the slayer or one of the slayer's relatives, especially such vengeance as once practiced in Corsica and parts of Italy.  Once again, a national conflict's reduced to personal vendetta. 
contraband- [kon-truh-band]-noun- anything prohibited by law from being imported or exported. You've probably seen dogs working security at airports, sniffing for drugs, bombs and contraband food. 
mascara- [ma-skar-uh]-noun- a substance used as a cosmetic to color the eyelashes and eyebrows. Mascara is something that is used on the eyelashes to enhance them such as thickening or lengthening.
graffiti- [gruh-fee-tee]-noun- markings, as initials, slogans, or drawings, written, spray-painted, or sketched on a sidewalk, wall of a building or public restroom, or the like.  These graffiti are evidence of the neighborhood's decline. 
credenza- [kri-den-zuh]-noun- a sideboard or buffet, especially one without legs.  By tradition, food to be tested before it was served to the ruler was set on a sideboard, or credenza.
parapet- [par-uh-pit, -pet]-noun-Fortification- a defensive wall or elevation, as of earth or stone, in a fortification.   Its parapet and ditch are each twenty feet in width. 
falsetto- [fawl-set-oh]-noun- an unnaturally or artificially high-pitched voice or register, especially in a man.  His lower register is unexpectedly resonant, and his falsetto sweetly poignant. 
ditto- [dit-oh]-noun- the aforesaid; the above; the same (used in accounts, lists, etc., to avoid repetition). Abbreviation: do. Symbol:  To practice medicine, medical school is essential; ditto for law. 
provolone- [proh-vuh-loh-nee]-noun- a mellow light-colored, Italian cheese, usually smoked after drying.  Starters include shrimp basket with fries, breaded cauliflower and provolone sticks.
extravaganza- [ik-strav-uh-gan-zuh]-noun- any lavish or opulent show, event, assemblage, etc.   There was an extravaganza of new housewares on the twelfth floor. 
scampi- [skam-pee, skahm-]-noun-Italian Cookery- a dish of shrimp or prawns grilled or sautéed in oil or butter and garlic.  My favorite way to eat it is with shrimp scampi and asparagus tossed in. 
belladonna- [bel-uh-don-uh]-noun- Pharmacology- a drug from the leaves and root of this plant, containing atropine and related alkaloids: used in medicine to check secretions and spasms, to relieve pain or dizziness, and as a cardiac and respiratory stimulant.  Belladonna has been used for cosmetics, medicine, recreational drugs and as a poison. 
gondola- [gon-dl-uh]-noun- an enclosed cabin suspended from an overhead cable, used to transport passengers up and down a ski slope or over scenic or treacherous terrain.  When viewed from the gondola the slopes often looked practically empty.
rotunda- [roh-tuhn-duh]-noun- a large and high circular hall or room in a building, especially one surmounted by a dome.  Note the stenciling and the four murals on the interior's rotunda. 
cauliflower- [kaw-luh-flou-er, -lee-, kol-uh-, kol-ee-]-noun- a form of cultivated plant, Brassica oleracea botrytis, of the mustard family, whose inflorescence forms a compact, usually whitish head. Kraft is sneaking freeze-dried cauliflower powder into its macaroni and cheese. 
galleria- [gal-uh-ree-uh]-noun- a spacious passageway, court, or indoor mall, usually with a vaulted roof and lined with commercial establishments.  A galleria is a spacious passageway, court, or indoor mall, usually with a vaulted roof. 
regatta- [ri-gat-uh, -gah-tuh]-noun- an organized series of races of yachts, rowing boats, etc. The term regatta may describe either a rowing race or sailing race, however it is not usually used to describe a race between powerboats. 
crescendo- [kri-shen-doh, -sen-doh]--noun-Music- a gradual, steady increase in loudness or force. Voices rise in crescendo, chanting for the regime to fall. 
balcony- [bal-kuh-nee]-noun- a balustraded or railed elevated platform projecting from the wall of a building.  If you live in a city, you might have a window box or a pot of tomatoes on your balcony. 
portfolio- [pawrt-foh-lee-oh, pohrt-]-noun- the total holdings of the securities, commercial paper, etc., of a financial institution or private investor.  We used the line of credit from our homes and a portfolio of real estate investments and other holdings to finance the purchase. 
antipasto- [an-ti-pah-stoh, -pas-toh]-noun-Italian Cookery- a course of appetizers consisting of an assortment of foods, as olives, anchovies, sliced sausage, peppers, and artichoke hearts.  The chapters follow the course of a meal, from antipasto to dessert.
libretto- [li-bret-oh]-noun- the text or words of an opera or similar extended musical composition.
Among the plays are sketches, full-length comedies and dramas, and a libretto. 
virtuoso- [vur-choo-oh-soh]-noun- a person who has special knowledge or skill in a field. Their message was a liberating one: you didn't have to be a virtuoso to make music. 
harmonica- [hahr-mon-i-kuh]-noun- Also called mouth organ. a musical wind instrument consisting of a small rectangular case containing a set of metal reeds connected to a row of holes, over which the player places the mouth and exhales and inhales to produce the tones. He also developed proficiency with the harmonica but was always a self-accompanied musician. 
maestro- [mahy-stroh]-noun- an eminent composer, teacher, or conductor of music. Sturges' symphonic gent is not the conventional maestro. 
bravura- [bruh-vyoor-uh, -voor-uh]-noun- Music-a florid passage or piece requiring great skill and spirit in the performer. The melody is a bravura showpiece for any singer. 
fresco- [fres-koh]-noun- the art or technique of painting on a moist, plaster surface with colors ground up in water or a limewater mixture. Shades of a cobalt blue fresco can be found above the stepped altar. 
stucco- [stuhk-oh]-verb- to cover or ornament with stucco. They wanted to stucco their house with a taupe color 
inferno- [in-fur-noh]- a place or region that resembles @#!*% . The ironworks was an inferno of molten steel and half-naked bodies. 
ballerina- [bal-uh-ree-nuh]-noun- any female ballet dancer. When you open the box the music plays and the ballerina starts to dance. 
malaria- [muh-lair-ee-uh]-noun- Pathology-any of a group of diseases, usually intermittent or remittent, characterized by attacks of chills, fever, and sweating: formerly supposed to be due to swamp exhalations but now known to be caused by a parasitic protozoan, which is transferred to the human bloodstream by a mosquito of the genus Anopheles and which occupies and destroys red blood cells. Doctors estimate more than a million people die of malaria each year. 
grotto- [grot-oh]-noun- a cave or cavern; subterranean passage, chamber. Stroll by the fishpond and forest grotto to take in every bit of the calming nature. 
harpsichord- [hahrp-si-kawrd]-noun- a keyboard instrument, precursor of the piano, in which the strings are plucked by leather or quill points connected with the keys, in common use from the 16th to the 18th century, and revived in the 20th. In addition, he plays the harpsichord for relaxation. 
allegro- [uh-ley-groh, uh-leg-roh]-adj.- brisk or rapid in tempo. It slides effortlessly from allegro to adagio, the pace quickening and slowing with each turn.
virtuosa- [vur-choo-oh-suh]-noun- a female virtuoso; a woman with exceptional talent or skill, especially in music. She was virtuosa violinist who had been a child prodigy.
spaghetti- [spuh-get-ee]-noun- a white, starchy pasta of Italian origin that is made in the form of long strings, boiled, and served with any of a variety of meat, tomato, or other sauces. Whole wheat spaghetti and sauce is a good, healthy dinner.
piccolo- [pik-uh-loh]-noun- a small flute sounding an octave higher than the ordinary flute. The piccolo is a small flute commonly used in western orchestras.
ravioli- [rav-ee-oh-lee, rah-vee-]-noun- small cases of pasta, often square, stuffed with a filling, usually of meat or cheese, and often served with a tomato sauce. More than a dozen pastas are offered, including lobster ravioli and homemade gnocchi.
vibrato- [vi-brah-toh, vahy-]-noun- a pulsating effect, produced in singing by the rapid reiteration of emphasis on a tone, and on bowed instruments by a rapid change of pitch corresponding to the vocal tremolo. He says she needed to slow it down to emphasize her vibrato.
pesto- [pes-toh]-noun-Italian Cookery- a sauce typically made with basil, pine nuts, olive oil, and grated Parmesan blended together and served hot or cold over pasta, fish, or meat. House specialties include pasta with pesto sauce, tomato-cream sauce and a vegetable pasta.
aria- [ahr-ee-uh, air-ee-uh]-noun- an elaborate melody sung solo with accompaniment, as in an opera or oratorio. If you've never tried to sing an opera aria, try it, and try to make your voice sound like a pro. 
bambino- [bam-bee-noh, bahm-]-noun- a small child or baby. Bambino is Italian for "baby" or "infant" of either sex. 
salami- [suh-lah-mee]-noun- a kind of sausage, originally Italian, often flavored with garlic. Deli owners prepare to send tons of salami to troops. 
Parmesan- [pahr-muh-zahn, -zan, -zuh n; pahr-muh-zahn, -zan]-noun- Also called Parmesan cheese. a hard, dry variety of Italian cheese made from skim milk, usually grated and sprinkled over pasta dishes and soups; from Parma, in northern Italy. Parmesan is a kind of cheese generally used in cooking and restaurants to go on top or inside the dish. 
oratorio- [awr-uh-tawr-ee-oh, -tohr-, or-]-noun- an extended musical composition with a text more or less dramatic in character and usually based upon a religious theme, for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra, and performed without action, costume, or scenery. Thenceforth, she made her career as a recitalist and an oratorio singer.
gnocchi- [nok-ee, noh-kee]-noun-Italian Cookery- a dish of little dumplings made from potatoes, semolina, flour, or a combination of these ingredients. Many restaurants make their own gnocchi, a pasta that combines flour and potatoes. 
finale- [fi-nal-ee, -nah-lee]-noun- the concluding part of any performance, course of proceedings, etc.; end. The fireworks were absolutely gorgeous, and the finale was quite dramatic. 
scenario- [si-nair-ee-oh, -nahr-]-noun- an outline of the plot of a dramatic work, giving particulars as to the scenes, characters, situations, etc. Lastly, please don't focus solely on the examples in each scenario. 
contrapuntal- [kon-truh-puhn-tl]-adj.-Music- composed of two or more relatively independent melodies sounded together. On cue, they squat, then hop up and down in contrapuntal rhythm. 
illuminati- [ih-loo-muh-nah-tee, -ney-tahy]-noun- persons possessing, or claiming to possess, superior enlightenment. Not that it would have helped him get information from those cryptic illuminati. 
concerto- [kuh n-cher-toh]-noun- a composition for one or more principal instruments, with orchestral accompaniment, now usually in symphonic form. The concerto alternated between evocative dreaminess and bright good humor. 
macaroni- [mak-uh-roh-nee]-noun- small, tubular pasta prepared from wheat flour. He stops to ponder the buffet, to get a good whiff of the fried chicken and the macaroni and cheese. 
palmetto- [pal-met-oh, pahl-, pah-met-oh]-noun- any of various palms having fan-shaped leaves, as of the genera Sabal, Serenoa, and Thrinax. Low flames blacken palmetto and gallberry undergrowth, and a
few trees smoke. 

bandit- [ban-dit]-noun- a robber, especially a member of a gang or marauding band. The bandit typically enters the bank and presents a demand note for cash. 
fiasco- [fee-as-koh]-noun- a complete and ignominious failure. Even this fiasco did not seriously damage the company's strength. 
cameo- [kam-ee-oh]-noun- a technique of engraving upon a gem or other stone, as onyx, in such a way that an underlying stone of one color is exposed as a background for a low-relief design of another color. In my time a cameo set in pearls was thought sufficient. 
sonata- [suh-nah-tuh]-noun- Music- a composition for one or two instruments, typically in three or four movements in contrasted forms and keys. Beethovan would tell you that a sonata is a beautiful musical composition.
coloratura- [kuhl-er-uh-toor-uh, -tyoor-uh, kol-, kohl-]-noun- runs, trills, and other florid decorations in vocal music. It's pure coloratura sparkled through her early arias, drawing bursts of applause. 

Challenge Words
scherzo- [skert-soh]-noun-Music- a movement or passage of light or playful character, especially as the second or third movement of a sonata or a symphony. A scherzo is a fast, rushing movement in triple meter used by Beethoven instead of a minuet.
adagio- [uh-dah-joh, -zhee-oh]-adverb- Music-in a leisurely manner; slowly. Adagio means 'at ease' in Italian, and denotes a slow pace, around and under 60 beats per minute. 
segue- [sey-gwey, seg-wey]-verb- to make a transition from one thing to another smoothly and without interruption. The conversation segued from travel anecdotes to food. 
zucchini- [zoo-kee-nee]-noun- a variety of summer squash that is shaped like a cucumber and that has a smooth, dark-green skin. We also had a little side of leftovers from the night before of zucchini and shrimp risotto. 
capricious- [kuh-prish-uh s, -pree-shuh s]-adj.- subject to, led by, or indicative of a sudden, odd notion or unpredictable change; erratic. He's such a capricious boss I never know how he'll react. 
archipelago- [ahr-kuh-pel-uh-goh]-noun- a large group or chain of islands. About 20 typhoons and storms lash the archipelago annually.
charlatan- [shahr-luh-tn]-noun- a person who pretends or claims to have more knowledge or skill than he or she possesses; quack. For every self-promoting charlatan, there's a true public servant. 
maraschino- [mar-uh-skee-noh, -shee-]-noun- a liqueur made from marasca cherries and flavoured with the kernels, having a taste like bitter almonds. Flavor with maraschino or sherry and pour the mixture into a mould that has been wet in cold water.
paparazzo- [pah-puh-raht-soh]-noun- a freelance photographer, especially one who takes candid pictures of celebrities for publication. Investigators wonder if that something was the handlebar of a paparazzo 's motorcycle.
fantoccini- [fan-tuh-chee-nee]-noun- puppets or marionettes manipulated by strings, wires, or mechanical devices. The kids enjoyed the fantoccini show. 
mozzarella- [mot-suh-rel-luh, moht-]-noun- a mild, white, semisoft Italian cheese. Place the tomatoes and mozzarella slices alternately around mix.
garibaldi- [gar-uh-bawl-dee]-noun- a brilliant orange damselfish, Hypsypops rubicundus, found off the rocky coasts of southern California. Garibaldi community profile for additional information on harbor facilities. 
ocarina- [ok-uh-ree-nuh]-noun- a simple musical wind instrument shaped somewhat like an elongated egg with a mouthpiece and finger holes. The ocarina dates back more than 12,000 years, used primarily in ancient China and Meso-America. 
prosciutto- [proh-shoo-toh]-noun- salted ham that has been cured by drying, always sliced paper-thin for serving. Only a tourist would pull the fat off the prosciutto. 
trattoria- [trah-tuh-ree-uh]-noun- a usually inexpensive or informal restaurant or cafe specializing in Italian dishes. Dinner will be at a small trattoria on a side street far from the tourist attractions. 
vivace- [vi-vah-chey]-adverb- (a musical direction) vivacious; lively. If picking the load up was executed with allegro, then the off-load is an exercise in vivace and meticulousness.
cappelletti- [kap-uh-let-ee]-noun- small pieces of pasta filled with meat or cheese. Cappelletti or tortellini dry can be served in broth with either with meat sauce, butter or cream sauce.
pizzicato- [pit-si-kah-toh]-adj.- played by plucking the strings with the finger instead of using the bow, as on a violin. The pizzicato style varies between different players and genres. 
intaglio- [in-tal-yoh, -tahl-]-noun- incised carving, as opposed to carving in relief; ornamentation with a figure or design sunk below the surface. Archeological resources include petroglyphs, lithic scatters and an intaglio.