What's all the "Buzz" about?

What you need to do-
Please read the parent letter and the rules and regulations on the side tab bar. If you have a child in 4th or 5th grade, you need to print off each of the 14 different language sections and staple together or they can study them online. Have your child study these words for the next couple of months. The top 2 winners from our elementary will go on to the Iron County District Spelling Bee held at the District Office Building on March 13th. There will be some big prizes this year! Winner gets an ipad mini. If your child does not have access to the internet or paper to print, there are a few copies in the office that you could pick up.

If you have a child in 1st-3rd grade, you need to print off spelling list A & B and have your child study them for the next couple of months. If you cannot view list A, you just click on the button "older posts" at the bottom of the page and it will redirect to Spelling List A.

Monday, November 4, 2013

4th-5th Grade Spelling List (13- Greek)

lethargy- [leth-er-jee]-noun- the quality or state of being drowsy and dull, listless and unenergetic, or indifferent and lazy; apathetic or sluggish inactivity. Yet there was no sign of lethargy or sluggishness anywhere about it.
anomalous- [uh-nom-uh-luh s]-adj- deviating from or inconsistent with the common order, form, or rule; irregular; abnormal. Advanced forms of life may be anomalous in the universe. 
aphelion- [uh-fee-lee-uh n, uh-feel-yuh n, ap-hee-lee-uh n] -noun - the point in the orbit of a planet or a comet at which it is farthest from the sun. What it says is that the neighborhood is what goes from perihelion to aphelion. 
asymptote- [as-im-toht]-noun- a straight line approached by a given curve as one of the variables in the equation of the curve approaches infinity. Therefore, launch at any other time would be targeted to a slightly non-optimal asymptote. 
idiosyncrasy- [id-ee-uh-sing-kruh-see, -sin-]-noun- a characteristic, habit, mannerism, or the like, that is peculiar to an individual. An idiosyncrasy is a noun which refers to a person's behavior and even habits. 
pneumonia- [noo-mohn-yuh, -moh-nee-uh, nyoo-]-noun- an acute disease of the lungs, caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae and characterized by fever, a cough with blood-tinged phlegm, and difficult breathing. He's had pneumonia for the last month and wasn't feeling up to it. 
onomatopoeia- [on-uh-mat-uh-pee-uh, ‐mah-tuh‐]-noun- the formation of a word, as cuckoo, meow, honk, or boom, by imitation of a sound made by or associated with its referent; the use of imitative and naturally suggestive words for rhetorical, dramatic, or poetic effect. Discuss rhyming, alliteration and onomatopoeia to encourage interesting names for bars. 
stochastic- [stuh-kas-tik]-adj- of or pertaining to a process involving a randomly determined sequence of observations each of which is considered as a sample of one element from a probability distribution. Open source communities are hierarchical, not stochastic.
triskaidekaphobia- [tris-kahy-dek-uh-foh-bee-uh, tris-kuh-]-noun- fear or a phobia concerning the number 13. Triskaidekaphobia is a fear of the no. 13, considered to be a superstition.
theism- [thee-iz-uh m]-noun- the belief in one God as the creator and ruler of the universe, without rejection of revelation (distinguished from deism ). Theism can be sub-divided into monotheism (belief that there is one God) or polytheism (belief that there is more than one God).
triptych- [trip-tik]-noun- Fine Arts. a set of three panels or compartments side by side, bearing pictures, carvings, or the like. It is an allegorical, complicated triptych with hundreds of details and with curious unclothed people.
troglodyte-[trog-luh-dahyt]-noun- a prehistoric cave dweller. He threw out troglodyte, moron or other
epithet he cared to hurl. 

ptarmigan- [tahr-mi-guhn]-noun- any of several grouses of the genus Lagopus, of mountainous and cold northern regions, having feathered feet. More than any other grouse, ptarmigan seem unconcerned about humans.
android- [an-droid]-noun- an automaton in the form of a human being. Until the android troopers showed up, nobody ever got shot, nobody was ever killed.
chronic- [kron-ik]-adj.- constant; habitual; inveterate. For insomniacs, theirs is often a chronic condition.
biopsy- [bahy-op-see]-noun-Medical-the removal for diagnostic study of a piece of tissue from a living body. Days later, a biopsy revealed a fast-growing cancer in her body. 
irony- [ahy-ruh-nee, ahy-er-]-noun- the use of words to convey a meaning that is the opposite of its literal meaning. So the irony is this: technology is freeing us from technology. 
automaton- [aw-tom-uh-ton, -tn]-noun- a mechanical figure or contrivance constructed to act as if by its own motive power; robot. It was the first type of that kind of underwater automaton to do that type of work. 
enthusiasm- [en-thoo-zee-az-uh m]-noun- absorbing or controlling possession of the mind by any interest or pursuit; lively interest. He shows marked enthusiasm for his studies. 
synopsis- [si-nop-sis]-noun- a brief or condensed statement giving a general view of some subject. The synopsis of the play begins with a street brawl between Montagues and Capulets. 
homogeneous- [hoh-muh-jee-nee-uh s, -jeen-yuh s, hom-uh-]-adj.- composed of parts or elements that are all of the same kind; not heterogeneous. The designers like the idea of having mismatched dishes and flatware for an eclectic, rather than a homogeneous, look. 
odyssey- [od-uh-see]-noun- a long series of wanderings or adventures, especially when filled with notable experiences, hardships, etc. They decided to include Denmark on their European odyssey. 
megalopolis- [meg-uh-lop-uh-lis]-noun- an urban region, especially one consisting of several large cities and suburbs that adjoin each other. The area is already something of an urban megalopolis.
acme- [ak-mee]-noun- the highest point; summit; peak. The empire was at the acme of its power. synonym- [sin-uh-nim]-noun- a word having the same or nearly the same meaning as another in the language, as happy, joyful, elated. Your tenacity is worthy of encouragement, but effort is not a synonym for accomplishment. 
orthodox- [awr-thuh-doks]-adj.- of, pertaining to, or conforming to the approved form of any doctrine, philosophy, ideology, etc. More orthodox measures aimed at limiting the franc's rise have proved ineffective. 
aristocracy- [ar-uh-stok-ruh-see]-noun- a class of persons holding exceptional rank and privileges, especially the hereditary nobility. These policies are something out of an aristocracy, not our democracy. 
Calypso- [kuh-lip-soh]-noun- Classical Mythology- a sea nymph who detained Odysseus on the island of Ogygia for seven years. Calypso is generally said to be the daughter of the Titan Atlas. 
patriarch- [pey-tree-ahrk]-noun- the male head of a family or tribal line. She wrote two stories in which a strong-willed patriarch plays matchmaker.
hierarchy- [hahy-uh-rahr-kee, hahy-rahr-]-noun- any system of persons or things ranked one above another. What is missing here is social science research on the hierarchy of the values. 
character- [kar-ik-ter]- the aggregate of features and traits that form the individual nature of some person or thing. It helps even more that she has an honest character with a gift for words. 
isobar- [ahy-suh-bahr]-noun- Physics, Chemistry - one of two or more atoms having equal atomic weights but different atomic numbers. Special flag for estimated radius of outermost closed isobar. asterisk- [as-tuh-risk]-noun- a small starlike symbol (*), used in writing and printing as a reference mark or to indicate omission, doubtful matter, etc. The sentence marked with an asterisk has been changed. 
eclectic- [ih-klek-tik]-adj.- not following any one system, as of philosophy, medicine, etc., but selecting and using what are considered the best elements of all systems. Their house is as comfortably and colorfully eclectic as they can make it.
melancholy- [mel-uh n-kol-ee]-noun- a gloomy state of mind, especially when habitual or prolonged; depression. His romances were brilliant and powerful, but his own life seemed muted and melancholy. 
stoic- [stoh-ik]-adj.- of or pertaining to the school of philosophy founded by Zeno, who taught that people should be free from passion, unmoved by joy or grief, and submit without complaint to unavoidable necessity. A principle of stoic philosophy is that the universe is a cosmos. 
chronology- [kruh-nol-uh-jee]-noun- the sequential order in which past events occur. The book also offers the first accurate and in-depth chronology of a turbulent journey from criminal to icon. 
eulogy- [yoo-luh-jee]-noun- a speech or writing in praise of a person or thing, especially a set oration in honor of a deceased person. Tara preferred the eloquence of eulogy to the deadline of obituary. 
didactic- [dahy-dak-tik]-adj.- intended for instruction; instructive. He combines humor and social commentary and does it without being didactic. 
cosmetic- [koz-met-ik]-noun- a powder, lotion, lipstick, rouge, or other preparation for beautifying the face, skin, hair, nails, etc. Hair tonics, perfumes, toilet waters and other cosmetic products were similarly exempt. 
Spartan- [spahr-tn]-noun- suggestive of the ancient Spartans; sternly disciplined and rigorously simple, frugal, or austere. The Spartans were highly disciplined warriors.
geothermal- [jee-oh-thur-muh l]-adj.- of or pertaining to the internal heat of the earth. Generate energy with solar panels, wind turbines or geothermal systems-or all three. 
cynical- [sin-i-kuh l]-adj.- bitterly or sneeringly distrustful, contemptuous, or pessimistic. Such a cynical and decadent philosophy could not go unchallenged.
homonym- [hom-uh-nim]-noun- Phonetics-a word pronounced the same as another but differing in meaning, whether spelled the same way or not, as heir and air. Be careful to use the rite homonym, or rather the right homonym. 
cryptic- [krip-tik]-adj.- mysterious in meaning; puzzling; ambiguous. The songs are overstuffed with cryptic slang and complex stories.
hypothesis- [hahy-poth-uh-sis, hi-]-noun- a proposition, or set of propositions, set forth as an explanation for the occurrence of some specified group of phenomena, either asserted merely as a provisional conjecture to guide investigation (working hypothesis) or accepted as highly probable in the light of established facts. Students should also understand that a theory is broader than a hypothesis. 
academy- [uh-kad-uh-mee]-noun- a school or college for special instruction or training in a subject. A military committee was functioning in the military academy. 
pentathlon- [pen-tath-luh n, -lon]-noun- an athletic contest comprising five different track and field events and won by the contestant gaining the highest total score. She trained for months for the pentathlon.
diatribe- [dahy-uh-trahyb]-noun- a bitter, sharply abusive denunciation, attack, or criticism. The magazines and newspapers repeated diatribes against the senator.
antibiotic- [an-ti-bahy-ot-ik, -bee-, an-tee-, -tahy-]-noun- any of a large group of chemical substances, as penicillin or streptomycin, produced by various microorganisms and fungi, having the capacity in dilute solutions to inhibit the growth of or to destroy bacteria and other microorganisms, used chiefly in the treatment of infectious diseases. Antibiotic treatment is best reserved for illnesses in which it is likely to be effective. 
etymology- [et-uh-mol-uh-jee]-noun- a chronological account of the birth and development of a particular word or element of a word, often delineating its spread from one language to another and its evolving changes in form and meaning. The etymology of the name is not known, it is probably not Greek. 
hydraulic- [hahy-draw-lik, -drol-ik]-adj.- operated by the pressure created by forcing water, oil, or another liquid through a comparatively narrow pipe or orifice. Using hydraulic jacks, the entire building can be raised. 
trauma- [trou-muh, traw-]-Pathology- a body wound or shock produced by sudden physical injury, as from violence or accident. The cause has not yet been determined but preliminary laboratory tests revealed acute physical trauma. 
hygiene- [hahy-jeen]-noun- a condition or practice conducive to the preservation of health, as cleanliness. The gene can spread hand-to-mouth, which makes good hygiene very important. 
semantics- [si-man-tiks]-noun- the meaning, or an interpretation of the meaning, of a word, sign, sentence, etc. Let's not argue about semantics about the probe's journey. 
thesaurus- [thi-sawr-uh s]-noun- a dictionary of synonyms and antonyms. In a thesaurus, the words themselves are the content. 
phenomenon- [fi-nom-uh-non, -nuh n]- a fact, occurrence, or circumstance observed or observable. Most astronomers doubt the pulsars are more than a natural phenomenon.
cosmos- [koz-muhs, -mohs]-noun- the world or universe regarded as an orderly, harmonious system. He was blinded by the sheer glory of the new cosmos that was unveiled by science during the first two decades of his life. 
protagonist- [proh-tag-uh-nist]-noun- the leading character, hero, or heroine of a drama or other literary work. Nearly every story's protagonist suffers from something of a protective shield cast by the writer.
acronym- [ak-ruh-nim]-noun- a word formed from the initial letters or groups of letters of words in a set phrase or series of words and pronounced as a separate word, as Wac from Women's Army Corps. There is always some new acronym in the technology industry. 
paradox- [par-uh-doks]-noun- a statement or proposition that seems self-contradictory or absurd but in reality expresses a possible truth. The most troublesome paradox, and the most difficult to change, is that of education itself. 
synchronous- [sing-kruh-nuh s]-adj.- occurring at the same time; coinciding in time; contemporaneous; simultaneous. Normally, brain activity is synchronous across this circuit's three regions.
misanthropy- [mis-an-thruh-pee, miz-]-noun- hatred, dislike, or distrust of humankind. In a world dominated by extrovert behaviour, introversion is often mistaken for misanthropy.
sarcasm- [sahr-kaz-uh m]-noun- harsh or bitter derision or irony. Now and then there was a touch of sarcasm in his voice. 
ephemeral- [ih-fem-er-uhl]-adj.- lasting a very short time; short-lived; transitory. I'm happy that the movie can give some pleasure to people, but acting is ephemeral. 
polygon- [pol-ee-gon]-noun-a figure, especially a closed plane figure, having three or more, usually straight, sides. In the center we have a heptagon, that is to say a seven sided polygon. 
nemesis- [nem-uh-sis]-noun- an opponent or rival whom a person cannot best or overcome. When someone is your nemesis they are hard to conquer.
syntax- [sin-taks]-noun-Linguistics- the study of the rules for the formation of grammatical sentences in a language. Consider your answers carefully, and write in complete sentences with proper grammar, syntax and punctuation. 
eureka- [yoo-ree-kuh, yuh-]-interjection- used as an exclamation of triumph at a discovery. Archimedes, an ancient Greek engineer, is reputed to have run naked through the streets shouting, "Eureka!"
topography- [tuh-pog-ruh-fee]-noun- the detailed mapping or charting of the features of a relatively small area, district, or locality. The local topography changes according to the seasons.
panic- [pan-ik]-noun- a sudden overwhelming fear, with or without cause, that produces hysterical or irrational behavior, and that often spreads quickly through a group of persons or animals. The group was so lost it couldn't figure out how to backtrack and started to panic. 
apostrophe- [uh-pos-truh-fee]-noun- the sign ('), as used: to indicate the omission of one or more letters in a word, whether unpronounced, as in o'er for over, or pronounced, as in gov't for government; to indicate the possessive case, as in man's; or to indicate plurals of abbreviations and symbols, as in several M.D.'s, 3's. That's is a contraction for that is and thus requires an apostrophe. 
geranium- [ji-rey-nee-uh m]-noun- any of numerous plants of the genus Geranium, which comprises the crane's-bills. Many people bring their geraniums indoors for the winter.
metaphor- [met-uh-fawr, -fer]-noun- a figure of speech in which a term or phrase is applied to something to which it is not literally applicable in order to suggest a resemblance, as in “A mighty fortress is our God.” The ecosystem metaphor has become very popular, almost too popular. 
spherical- [sfer-i-kuh l, sfeer-]-adj.- having the form of a sphere; globular. The nucleus is spherical and situated about the center of the cell. 
xylophone- [zahy-luh-fohn]-noun- a musical instrument consisting of a graduated series of wooden bars, usually sounded by striking with small wooden hammers. Instruments on the table include a xylophone, cymbal, drum and two drumsticks.
dynamic- [dahy-nam-ik]-adj.- pertaining to or characterized by energy or effective action; vigorously active or forceful; energetic: the dynamic president of the firm. The result was a dynamic work ethic. myriad- [mir-ee-uh d]-adj.- of an indefinitely great number; innumerable. The myriad stars of a summer night are beautiful to behold. 
epiphany- [ih-pif-uh-nee]-noun-a sudden, intuitive perception of or insight into the reality or essential meaning of something, usually initiated by some simple, homely, or commonplace occurrence or experience. An epiphany is a sudden realization of the essence or meaning of something. 
apathy- [ap-uh-thee]-noun- absence or suppression of passion, emotion, or excitement. Try not to allow their apathy to affect your enthusiasm. 
synergy- [sin-er-jee]-noun- the interaction of elements that when combined produce a total effect that is greater than the sum of the individual elements, contributions, etc. Negative synergy occurs when the sum of effects of the mixture is less than that of the individual components of the mix. 
amnesia- [am-nee-zhuh]-noun- loss of a large block of interrelated memories; complete or partial loss of memory caused by brain injury, shock, etc. Another had amnesia for several weeks after the quake. 
philanthropy- [fi-lan-thruh-pee]-noun- altruistic concern for human welfare and advancement, usually manifested by donations of money, property, or work to needy persons, by endowment of institutions of learning and hospitals, and by generosity to other socially useful purposes. Volunteering and philanthropy are strongly emphasized in our household. 
democracy- [dih-mok-ruh-see]-noun- government by the people; a form of government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their elected agents under a free electoral system. In a democracy, nothing is supposed to matter more than the will of the people. 
strategy- [strat-i-jee]-noun- a plan, method, or series of maneuvers or stratagems for obtaining a specific goal or result. The best strategy is to shake snow off or knock it off with a broom to keep it from building up. 
diagnosis- [dahy-uh g-noh-sis]-noun-Medical- the process of determining by examination the nature and circumstances of a diseased condition. He was 77 and had been in poor health since he received a diagnosis of brain cancer last year. 
topical- [top-i-kuh l]-adj.- Medicine/Medical-of, pertaining to, or applied externally to a particular part of the body; local. Most healthy patients receive either a local injection or topical anesthetic. 
matriarch- [mey-tree-ahrk]-noun- the female head of a family or tribal line. She was the family's beautiful matriarch. 
endemic- [en-dem-ik]-noun- natural to or characteristic of a specific people or place; native; indigenous. Corruption has become so endemic that it is perceived as normal. 
analysis- [uh-nal-uh-sis]-noun- this process as a method of studying the nature of something or of determining its essential features and their relations. They had to conduct market research and competitive analysis. 
rhetoric- [ret-er-ik]-noun- the undue use of exaggeration or display; bombast. He has all the proper sentiments, and his rhetoric and rimes are easy work for him. 
eponym- [ep-uh-nim]-noun- a person, real or imaginary, from whom something, as a tribe, nation, or place, takes or is said to take its name. Worse, Benedict Arnold's name became an eponym for someone who betrays his own country by helping the enemy. 
agnostic- [ag-nos-tik]-noun- a person who holds that the existence of the ultimate cause, as God, and the essential nature of things are unknown and unknowable, or that human knowledge is limited to experience. The term 'agnostic' was created by T. H. Huxley
dogma- [dawg-muh, dog-]-noun- an official system of principles or tenets concerning faith, morals, behavior, etc., as of a church. It became nutritional dogma in some circles that sugar was healthy, and high-fructose corn syrup was not. 
idiom- [id-ee-uh m]-noun- an expression whose meaning is not predictable from the usual meanings of its constituent elements, as kick the bucket or hang one's head. Anyone ever thought of an idiom: give an inch, take a mile. 
thermal- [thur-muhl]-noun-of, pertaining to, or caused by heat or temperature. Solar thermal systems use heat energy from the sun to warm water.
Olympian- [uh-lim-pee-uh n, oh-lim-]-noun- pertaining to Mount Olympus or dwelling thereon, as the gods of classical Greece. Mighty Zeus is the leader of all the Olympian gods.
dyslexia- [dis-lek-see-uh]-noun-Pathology- any of various reading disorders associated with impairment of the ability to interpret spatial relationships or to integrate auditory and visual information. Dyslexia manifests itself as a difficulty with a highly unnatural activity: reading. 
allegory- [al-uh-gawr-ee, -gohr-ee]-noun- a representation of an abstract or spiritual meaning through concrete or material forms; figurative treatment of one subject under the guise of another. One part intriguing allegory to nine parts gore, zombie films are hard to love. 
pragmatic- [prag-mat-ik]-adj.- of or pertaining to a practical point of view or practical considerations. He's less a social critic than a pragmatic businessman. 
adamant- [ad-uh-muhnt, -mant]-adj.- utterly unyielding in attitude or opinion in spite of all appeals, urgings, etc. The officer was adamant that the light was red before I went through it. 
protocol- [proh-tuh-kawl, -kol, -kohl]-noun- the customs and regulations dealing with diplomatic formality, precedence, and etiquette. When the late arrival entered, the protocol was to take one's seat quietly and without complaint. 
tragic- [traj-ik]-adj.- characteristic or suggestive of tragedy. Tragic events sometimes bring out the best in people. 
hydrology- [hahy-drol-uh-jee]-noun- the science dealing with the occurrence, circulation, distribution, and properties of the waters of the earth and its atmosphere. Hydrology is the aspect of geology which studies water. 
polymer- [pol-uh-mer]-noun-Chemistry- a compound of high molecular weight derived either by the addition of many smaller molecules, as polyethylene, or by the condensation of many smaller molecules with the elimination of water, alcohol, or the like, as nylon. The rink, made of recyclable polymer, requires no refrigeration or electricity. 
notochord- [noh-tuh-kawrd]-noun- Embryology- a rodlike cord of cells that forms the chief axial supporting structure of the body of the lower chordates, as amphioxus and the cyclostomes, and of the embryos of the vertebrates. A notochord is a flexible and usually rod-shaped body found in embryos of all chordates. 
biblical- [bib-li-kuh l]-adj.- of or in the Bible; in accord with the Bible. A wiki list of biblical names says Zur means stone rock that besieges.
ergonomic- [ur-guh-nom-iks]-noun- designed to minimize physical effort and discomfort, and hence maximize efficiency. Snowboarders do hold one, if small, ergonomic advantage over skiers.
mathematics- [math-uh-mat-iks]-noun- the systematic treatment of magnitude, relationships between figures and forms, and relations between quantities expressed symbolically. Mathematics is a language translatable into any other. 
tachometer- [ta-kom-i-ter, tuh-]-noun- any of various instruments for measuring or indicating velocity or speed, as of a machine, a river, or the blood. By using a tachometer to measure actual motor speed, it is possible to calculate motor loads. 
protein- [proh-teen, -tee-in]-noun- the plant or animal tissue rich in such molecules, considered as a food source supplying essential amino acids to the body. Calculate how much protein you should be eating every day and then start tracking it.
rhinoceros- [rahy-nos-er-uh s]-noun- any of several large, thick-skinned, perissodactyl mammals of the family Rhinocerotidae, of Africa and India, having one or two upright horns on the snout. It is closely related to the horse and is also kin to the rhinoceros. 
hyphen- [hahy-fuh n]-noun- a short line (-) used to connect the parts of a compound word or the parts of a word divided for any purpose. Avoid dividing words with a hyphen at the end of a line, especially in unjustified text. 
autopsy- [aw-top-see, aw-tuhp-]-noun- inspection and dissection of a body after death, as for determination of the cause of death; postmortem examination. The final autopsy report is expected to be made public today, when testimony resumes. 
pyre- [pahyuh r]-noun- a pile or heap of wood or other combustible material. Behind the village they erect a pyre, on which they burn the straw figure, reviling and scoffing at it.
herpetology- [hur-pi-tol-uh-jee]-noun-the branch of zoology dealing with reptiles and amphibians. Making great leaps forward in herpetology, accounting for detectability in field studies. 
angelic- [an-jel-ik]-adj.- of or belonging to angels; like or befitting an angel, especially in virtue, beauty, etc. Every day, you can be touched by someone angelic.
tritium- [trit-ee-uhm, trish-, trish-uhm]-noun-Chemistry- an isotope of hydrogen having an atomic weight of three. When a warhead detonates, it squeezes the deuterium and tritium until they fuse together. 
androcentric- [an-druh-sen-trik]-adj.- centered on, emphasizing, or dominated by males or masculine interests. Androcentrism is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing male human beings or the masculine point of view at the center of one's view of the world and its culture and history.
demotic- [dih-mot-ik]-adj.- of or pertaining to the ordinary, everyday, current form of a language; vernacular. He is a poet with a keen ear for demotic rhythms. 
geode- [jee-ohd]-noun- a hollow concretionary or nodular stone often lined with crystals. A geode is a rock with crystal inside and a lumpy exterior.
hedonism- [heed-n-iz-uh m]-noun- the doctrine that pleasure or happiness is the highest good. Rebelling against her upbringing, Karen spends the summer in a haze of hedonism. 
periscope- [per-uh-skohp]-noun- an optical instrument for viewing objects that are above the level of direct sight or in an otherwise obstructed field of vision, consisting essentially of a tube with an arrangement of prisms or mirrors and, usually, lenses: used especially in submarines. The van is equipped with a video camera and a periscope. 
geoponics- [jee-uh-pon-iks]-noun- the art or science of agriculture; gardening or farming in soil. The term geoponics in farming practice, refer to growing plants in normal soil. 
asthmogenic-[az-mo-jen-ik]-adj.-causing asthmatic conditions. The thick smog was asthmogenic. monotonous- [muh-not-n-uhs]-adj.- lacking in variety; tediously unvarying. Everyone has had the mindless slipup during a monotonous task. 
amphibious- [am-fib-ee-uh s]-adj.- living or able to live both on land and in water; belonging to both land and water. Mosses are the amphibious descendants of aquatic algae. 
symbiosis- [sim-bee-oh-sis, -bahy-]-noun-Biology- the living together of two dissimilar organisms, as in mutualism, commensalism, amensalism, or parasitism. From slimy to friendly, these invaders live in symbiosis with plants and us.
macron- [mey-kron, mak-ron]-noun- a horizontal line used as a diacritic over a vowel to indicate that it has a long sound or other specified pronunciation, as (ā) in fate (fāt). Despite it's "exotic" status, the macron is actually used in quite a few cases, including Latin long marks.
periphery- [puh-rif-uh-ree]-noun- the external boundary of any surface or area. It's on the ramp's periphery that the miners blasted open veins of gold.

Challenge Words 
dichotomy- [dahy-kot-uh-mee]-noun- division into two parts, kinds, etc.; subdivision into halves or pairs. The dichotomy between personal liberties and property rights is a false one. 
misogynist- [mi-soj-uh-nist, mahy‐]-noun- a person who hates, dislikes, mistrusts, or mistreats women. A misogynist is defined as a misanthrope who dislikes women in particular. 
hypocrisy- [hi-pok-ruh-see]-noun- a pretense of having a virtuous character, moral or religious beliefs or principles, etc., that one does not really possess. Sincerity is described in the dictionary as the quality of being without deceit, pretense or hypocrisy.
diphthong- [dif-thawng, -thong, dip-]-noun- Phonetics . an unsegmentable, gliding speech sound varying continuously in phonetic quality but held to be a single sound or phoneme and identified by its apparent beginning and ending sound, as the oi- sound of toy or boil. A diphthong is a phonetic term for a vowel with two sounds. 
mnemonic- [ni-mon-ik]-adj.- assisting or intended to assist the memory. He was able to beef up his memory by learning mnemonic techniques. 
anomaly- [uh-nom-uh-lee]-noun- a deviation from the common rule, type, arrangement, or form. Synonyms: abnormality, exception, peculiarity. We take this anomaly for granted and ignore the real significance of it. 
zephyr- [zef-er]-noun- a gentle, mild breeze. A zephyr is a breeze from the west, a light breeze.
hippopotamus- [hip-uh-pot-uh-muhs]-noun- a large herbivorous mammal, Hippopotamus amphibius, having a thick hairless body, short legs, and a large head and muzzle, found in and near the rivers, lakes, etc., of Africa, and able to remain under water for a considerable time. Ali at one juncture rides to fame on the back of a hippopotamus. 
euphemism- [yoo-fuh-miz-uh m]-noun- the substitution of a mild, indirect, or vague expression for one thought to be offensive, harsh, or blunt. At first I thought this was a clever euphemism for declaring bankruptcy.
anachronism- [uh-nak-ruh-niz-uh m]-noun- something or someone that is not in its correct historical or chronological time, especially a thing or person that belongs to an earlier time. This is not an anachronism , this is a poet.
metamorphosis- [met-uh-mawr-fuh-sis]-noun- Biology-a profound change in form from one stage to the next in the life history of an organism, as from the caterpillar to the pupa and from the pupa to the adult butterfly. In earliest human life, some cells undergo a dramatic metamorphosis. 
hyperbole-[hahy-pur-buh-lee]-noun-Rhetoric-an extravagant statement or figure of speech not intended to be taken literally, as “to wait an eternity.” Excessive use of hyperbole tends to evoke doubt, not agreement.
arachnid- [uh-rak-nid]-noun- any wingless, carnivorous arthropod of the class Arachnida, including spiders, scorpions, mites, ticks, and daddy-longlegs, having a body divided into two parts, the cephalothorax and the abdomen, and having eight appendages and no antennae.  A spider is part of the arachnid family.
paradigm- [par-uh-dahym, -dim]-noun-Grammar- a set of forms all of which contain a particular element, especially the set of all inflected forms based on a single stem or theme; a display in fixed arrangement of such a set, as boy, boy's, boys, boys'. Maybe if you got out of the paradigm you're stuck in you'd see things for how they really are. 
Eocene- [ee-uh-seen]-noun-Geological Time- noting or pertaining to an epoch of the Tertiary Period, occurring from 55 to 40 million years ago and characterized by the advent of the modern mammalian orders. The Tertiary period, which lasted for 20, 000, 000 years, was the time that hooved mammals appeared. 
gynarchy- [jin-er-kee, gahy-ner-, jahy-ner-]-noun- government by women. Our government is the opposite of a gynarchy, even though there are some women serving in it. 
pneumatic- [noo-mat-ik, nyoo-]-adj.- of or pertaining to air, gases, or wind. Miners use pneumatic drills now with their hammers and chisels. 
Hemerocallis- [hem-er-uh-kal-is]-noun- the genus comprising the day lilies. Daylily is the general nonscientific name of a species, hybrid or cultivar of the genus Hemerocallis. 
cynosure- [sahy-nuh-shoo r, sin-uh-]- something that strongly attracts attention by its brilliance, interest, etc. But her cynosure as an artist is a disciplined evacuation of psychic distance between her subjects and the viewer. 
philhellenism- [fil-hel-uh-niz-uh m]-noun-pertaining to the culture of Greece. In the story he believed in philhellenism.
euthanasia- [yoo-thuh-ney-zhuh, -zhee-uh, -zee-uh]-noun- the act of putting to death painlessly or allowing to die, as by withholding extreme medical measures, a person or animal suffering from an incurable, especially a painful, disease or condition. Veterinarians could offer no treatments and recommended euthanasia.
philately- [fi-lat-l-ee]-noun- the collecting of stamps and other postal matter as a hobby or an investment. Philately is the collection and study of postage stamps, postmarks, stamped envelopes and related materials. 
cacophony- [kuh-kof-uh-nee]-noun- a discordant and meaningless mixture of sounds. The cacophony produced by city traffic at midday is very loud.

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